セミナー
469 イベント

セミナー
Spectral correlations and scrambling dynamics in SachdevYeKitaev type models
2023年5月30日(火) 13:30  15:00
手塚 真樹 (京都大学 大学院理学研究科 物理学・宇宙物理学専攻 助教)
Note: Due to unexpected trouble, we have made the decision to postpone the seminar scheduled for February 21 to May 30. Sorry for the trouble. Abstract: The SachdevYeKitaev (SYK) model, proposed in 2015, is a quantum mechanical model of N Majorana or complex fermions with alltoall random fourbody interactions. The model has attracted significant attention over the years due to its features such as the existence of the largeN solution with maximally chaotic behavior at low temperatures and holographic correspondence to lowdimensional gravity. The sparse version of the SYK model reproduces essential features of the original model for reduced numbers of disorder parameters. We recently proposed [1] a further simplification, where we set the nonzero couplings to be +1 or 1 rather than sampling from a continuous distribution such as Gaussian. This binarycoupling model exhibits strong correlations in the spectrum, as observed in the spectral form factor, more efficiently in terms of the number of nonzero terms than in the Gaussian distribution case. We also discuss the scrambling dynamics with the binarycoupling sparse SYK model, comparing the model with the original model as well as the SYK model with random twobody terms [2], where the localization of the manybody eigenstates in the Fock space has been quantitatively studied [3,4].
会場: コモンルーム (246248号室) / via Zoom
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
Xray study on the synchrotron emission in Kepler's SNR
2023年5月19日(金) 14:00  15:00
Dr. Vincenzo Sapienza (東京大学 大学院理学系研究科 物理学専攻 博士課程)
Synchrotron Xray emission in young supernova remnants (SNRs) is a powerful diagnostic tool to study the population of high energy electrons accelerated at the shock front. We performed a spatially resolved spectral analysis of the young Kepler's SNR, where we identify two different regimes of particle acceleration. In the north, where the shock interacts with a dense circumstellar medium (CSM), we found a more efficient acceleration than in the south, where the shock velocity is higher and there are no signs of shock interaction with dense CSM. We also studied the temporal evolution of the synchrotron flux, from 2006 to 2014. A number of regions show a steady synchrotron flux and equal cooling and acceleration times. However, we found some regions where we measured a significant decrease in flux from 2006 to 2014. Our results display a coherent picture of the different regimes of electron acceleration observed in Kepler's SNR. Also If I will have time during the seminar it will be nice to present also some preliminary results I will have in the SN 1987A project.
会場: コモンルーム (246248号室) / via Zoom
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
Towards EeV Neutrino Astronomy with GRAND
2023年4月18日(火) 14:00  15:15
クミコ・コテラ (Associate Professor, Institute of Astrophysics, France)
We are living exciting times: we are now able to probe the most violent events of the Universe with diverse messengers (cosmic rays, neutrinos, photons and gravitational waves). One challenge to complete the multimessenger picture resides in the highest energies, as no ultrahigh energy neutrinos have been observed yet. This challenge could be undertaken by the GRAND (Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection) project, which aims at detecting ultrahigh energy particles, with a colossal array of 200'000 antennas over 200'000 km2, split into ~20 subarrays of ~10'000 km2 deployed worldwide. In this talk, we will present preliminary designs and simulation results, plans for the ongoing, staged approach to construction, and the rich research program made possible by the proposed sensitivity and angular resolution.
会場: コモンルーム (246248号室) / via Zoom
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
An overview on the nuclear equation of state studied from ground and collective excited state properties of nuclei
2023年4月12日(水) 13:30  15:00
Dr. Xavier RocaMaza (Associate Professor, Department of Physics, University of Milan, Italy)
This contribution reviews a selection of available constraints to the nuclear equation of state (EoS) around saturation density from nuclear structure calculations on ground and collective excited state properties of atomic nuclei [1]. It concentrates on predictions based on selfconsistent meanfield calculations, which can be considered as an approximate realization of an exact energy density functional (EDF). Mostly, EDFs are currently derived from effective interactions commonly fitted to nuclear masses, charge radii and, in many cases, also to pseudodata such as nuclear matter properties. Although in a model dependent way, EDFs constitute nowadays a unique tool to reliablyand consistently access bulk ground state and collective excited state properties of atomic nuclei along the nuclear chart as well as the EoS. The impact on the EoS of the new CREx [2] and PREx [3] measurments of the parity violating asymmetry (ground state observable) in 48Ca and 208Pb, respectively, will be also discussed [4,5] and compared to previously presented results on collective excitations. As the main conclusion, the isospin dependence of the nuclear EoS around saturation density and, to a lesser extent, the nuclear matter incompressibility remain to be accurately determined. Experimental and theoretical efforts in finding and measuring observables specially sensitive to the EoS properties are of paramount importance, not only for lowenergy nuclear physics but also for nuclear astrophysics applications.
会場: 理化学研究所 和光キャンパス RIBF棟 2階 大会議室 (メイン会場) / via Zoom
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
Introduction to the Renormalization group method as a powerful reduction method of dynamics.
2023年4月10日(月) 10:30  12:00
国広 悌二 (京都大学 名誉教授)
Extracting effective slow dynamics with fewer degrees of freedom from a complex system with many degrees of freedom is of basic importance in all areas of Science. Typical examples include the derivation of the amplitude and phase dynamics from nonlinear oscillators, that of the Boltzmann equation from Hamilton dynamics, which is further reduced to fluid dynamics and so on. The purpose of this talk is to give an elementary introduction to the renormalization group (RG) method as a powerful reduction method of differential (difference) equations in terms of the notion of envelopes. Some simple examples will be worked out in this method, which include the van der Pol (Rayleigh) equation with its discrete analog and a generic system with a bifurcation. In the final part, we list up various examples to which the RG method has been successfully applied.
会場: セミナー室 (359号室) (メイン会場) / via Zoom
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
Organizational meeting
2023年4月6日(木) 16:00  17:00
カトゥリン・ボシゥメン (数理創造プログラム 副プログラムディレクター)
The purpose of the organizational meetings is to discuss various topics of interest to the members of iTHEMS in the field of Biology, but also to participants of the iTHEMS BIology Seminar, irrespective of their field. The primary objective of this meeting will be to discuss recruitment of JRAs, SPDRs, and female researchers from Biology into iTHEMS. I hope we can identify the main obstacles and consider together possible solutions. As usual, any additional topic can be brought up spontaneously by participants. Anyone with thoughts about iTHEMS Biology is welcome to join us, no matter their field.
会場: via Zoom
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
Gaugeequivariant neural networks as preconditioners in lattice QCD
2023年4月6日(木) 13:30  15:00
Prof. Tilo Wettig (Professor, Universität Regensburg, Germany)
We demonstrate that a stateoftheart multigrid preconditioner can be learned efficiently by gaugeequivariant neural networks. We show that the models require minimal retraining on different gauge configurations of the same gauge ensemble and to a large extent remain efficient under modest modifications of ensemble parameters. We also demonstrate that important paradigms such as communication avoidance are straightforward to implement in this framework.
会場: コモンルーム (246248号室) (メイン会場) / via Zoom
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
Asymmetric enzyme kinetics of F1ATPase resulted from asymmetric allosterism
2023年3月30日(木) 16:00  17:00
中山 洋平 (東北大学 大学院工学研究科 応用物理学専攻 助教)
Biomolecular machines play various roles in cells where thermal fluctuation is dominant. Since artificial molecular machines are far behind biomolecular machines for the present, we should begin with understanding how biomolecular machines are designed to play their roles. We examine the motion of a biomolecular machine, F1ATPase, in single molecule experiments. In particular, we focus on the operation of F1ATPase as ATP synthase in addition to as molecular motor. In this seminar, I talk about the enzyme kinetics, dependence of reaction rate on substrate concentration, of F1ATPase in ATP synthesis. The experimental result shows that the enzyme kinetics of F1ATPase in ATP synthesis exhibits weaker dependence on substrate concentration than the ordinary MichaelisMenten kinetics, whereas that in ATP hydrolysis follows MichaelisMenten kinetics. Therefore, the enzyme kinetics of F1ATPase turned out to be asymmetric between ATP synthesis and hydrolysis. We analyzed this asymmetry based on a potential switching model, totally asymmetric allosteric model, whose characteristic is asymmetry in angular dependence of binding rates of substrates. It was shown that the totally asymmetric allosteric model may reproduce the experimental results, where the asymmetry of binding rates is essential. We also discuss physiological roles that the asymmetry of enzyme kinetics may play.
会場: via Zoom
イベント公式言語: 英語

Warming reduces the densitydependent divergence in emergence time for two competing parasitoid species
2023年3月23日(木) 16:00  17:00
津田 みどり (九州大学 大学院農学研究院 資源生物科学部門 農業生物資源学 准教授)
Climate change is expected to directly affect ectothermic species through their sensitivity to temperature, with cascading effects on populations and communities. Here we experimentally tested predictions from two nonexclusive hypotheses concerning the impacts of elevated temperature (+2°C) on interactions between a single host species (the azuki bean beetle) and two species of parasitoid wasps. We hypothesized that increasing temperature shortens the time that the host is vulnerable to parasitoid attack. This change in available resource should heighten intra and interspecific competition among parasitoids, which could induce divergence in emergence times. We found that intraspecific competition of both parasitoid species was more intense than interspecific competition irrespective of temperature. The difference (d) in the emergence times of the two parasitoid species increased with the density of each parasitoid but decreased at the elevated temperature. Both parasitoids emerged sooner at the elevated temperature and experienced a reduction in body size. Thus, high levels of intraspecific competition (along with the consequent reduction in body size) may have attenuated the intensity of interspecific competition at the elevated temperature despite a reduction in the differentiation of emergence times.
会場: via Zoom
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
Towards Smatrix theory of unstable particles
2023年3月15日(水) 13:30  15:00
青木 勝輝 (京都大学 基礎物理学研究所 基研特任助教)
The Smatrix is one of the central objects in quantum field theory and gains renewed interest recently to understand the possible structures of lowenergy effective field theories and quantum gravity. However, most of the particles have finite decay widths and thus do not appear in asymptotic states. Therefore, the standard Smatrix arguments may not be directly applied to scatterings of such unstable particles and we need to formulate “the Smatrix theory of unstable particles” to properly understand the availability of the Smatrix arguments in realistic systems. In this talk, I will talk about the first steps towards this goal. In particular, I will discuss nonperturbative consequences of unitarity in a scattering amplitude of unstable particles and its analytic properties.
会場: コモンルーム 246248号室 とZoomのハイブリッド開催
イベント公式言語: 英語

Neutrinos from the big bang: probing cosmic gravitational inhomogeneities & magnetic fields in the early universe
2023年3月13日(月) 13:30  15:00
ゴードン・ベイム (Professor Emeritus, University of Illinois, USA)
Primordial neutrinos from the Big Bang are about 100 times more prevalent than solar neutrinos, and at least twothirds of them are now nonrelativistic. These relic neutrinos, which have never been detected, decoupled in the early universe predominantly in helicity eigenstates. As I will discuss, their subsequent propagation through gravitational inhomogeneities and even background gravitational radiation, as well as cosmic and galactic magnetic fields partially flips their helicities, and can produce noticeable effects in their eventual detection. I will briefly mention future detection of relic neutrinos.
会場: コモンルーム (246248号室) (メイン会場) / via Zoom
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
Cosmic magnetism and its effects on the observed properties of ultra highenergy cosmic rays
2023年3月10日(金) 14:00  15:00
Dr. Ellis Owen (大阪大学 大学院理学研究科 宇宙地球科学専攻 宇宙進化グループ JSPS特別研究員)
Ultra highenergy (UHE) cosmic rays (CRs) from distant sources interact with intergalactic radiation fields, leading to their spallation and attenuation through photohadronic processes. Their deflection and diffusion in large scale intergalactic magnetic fields (IGMFs), in particular those associated with Mpcscale structures, alter the cumulative cooling and interactions of a CR ensemble to modify their spectral shape and composition observed on Earth. In this talk, I will demonstrate the extent to which IGMFs can affect observed UHE CRs, and show that source population models are degenerate with IGMF properties. Interpretation of observations, including the endorsement or rejection of any particular UHE CR source classes, needs careful consideration of the structural properties and evolution of IGMFs. Future observations providing tighter constraints on IGMF properties will significantly improve confidence in assessing UHE CR sources and their intrinsic CR production properties.
会場: via Zoom / コモンルーム (246248号室)
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
Feynman’s proof of integrability of Calogero system from a modern point of view
2023年3月10日(金) 10:00  11:30
Dr. Yehao Zhou (東京大学 カブリ数物連携宇宙研究機構 (Kavli IPMU) 特任研究員)
In his last year of life Feynman was interested in integrable system, and in his study of Calogero models he came up with his own proof of the commutativity of integrals of motions of these models, which remains unpublished until it was transcribed by Polychronakos in 2018. His idea is to organize integrals of motions of a Calogero model into a generating function of differential operators which look like a correlation function in a certain free theory, then he showed that the generating function of differential operators commute for all spectral values, which leads to a proof of commutativity of integrals of motions. He commented on his proof “I learn nothing, no real clue as to why all this works, and what it means”. Recently in a joint work with Davide Gaiotto and Miroslav Rapcek we identify Feynman’s generating function as the correlation function of Miura operators in a Walgebra of type A, and in the rational and trigonometric cases we show that they equal to certain elements in the Dunkl representation of corresponding spherical Cherednik algebras in type A, which make the commutativity selfevident. This progress is a byproduct of a project in the study of M2M5 brane junction in the Mtheory.
会場: コモンルーム (246248号室) / via Zoom
イベント公式言語: 英語

Reproductive interference can affect trait diversity of closely related animal species
2023年3月9日(木) 16:00  17:00
森田 慶一 (総合研究⼤学院⼤学 先導科学研究科 生命共生体進化学専攻 博士課程)
Previous theoretical studies have considered that evolution driven by resource competition is important for the creation and maintenance of biodiversity. Recently, reproductive interference caused by misrecognition of sexual traits such as calling between closely related species has been increasingly important for the creation and maintenance of diversity, but the impact of reproductive interference on trait diversity between closely related species remains unresolved. In this study, we combined population dynamics model with reproductive interference in two closely related species with an evolutionary model of traits related to reproduction to examine the impact of reproductive interference on the evolutionary consequences of reproductive traits in the two closely related species. The model assumed a tradeoff in which reproductive interference weakens as reproductive traits diverge between the two species, but predation pressure increases as the reproductive traits diverge from their optimum traits in their habitat. For simplicity, we assumed that only one species evolves. Our model analysis revealed that convergence and divergence of traits of two closely related species occurs depending on initial trait divergence. Also, under the parameter condition where trait convergence occurs, large mutation makes trait divergence possible. Our model will provide a new framework for understanding evolutionary dynamics in ecological communities containing closely related species.
会場: via Zoom
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
Topological Kondo superconductors
2023年3月2日(木) 17:00  18:15
Dr. YungYeh Chang (Postdoctoral Researcher, National Center for Theoretical Sciences & National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan)
Spintriplet pwave superconductors are promising candidates for topological superconductors. They have been proposed in various heterostructures where a material with strong spinorbit interaction is coupled to a conventional swave superconductor by proximity effect. However, topological superconductors existing in nature and driven purely by strong electron correlations are yet to be studied. Here we propose a realization of such a system in a class of Kondo lattice materials in the absence of proximity effect. Therein, the oddparity Kondo hybridization mediates ferromagnetic spinspin coupling and leads to spintriplet resonantvalencebond (tRVB) pairing between local moments. Spintriplet p±p’ wave topological superconductivity is reached when Kondo effect coexists with tRVB [1]. We identify the topological nature by the nontrivial topological invariant and the Majorana zero modes at edges. Our results on the superconducting transition temperature, Kondo coherent scale, and onset temperature of Kondo hybridization not only qualitatively but also quantitatively agree with the observations for UTe2, a Ubased ferromagnetic heavyelectron superconductor. *This work is supported by the National Science and Technology Council, Taiwan. Field: condensed matter physics Keywords: strongly correlated systems, topological superconductor, Kondo effect, resonant valence bond, heavyfermion compounds
会場: via Webex
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
How to sit Maxwell and Higgs on the boundary of AdS
2023年2月28日(火) 13:30  15:00
Dr. Matteo Baggioli (Associate Professor, School of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China)
Within the holographic correspondence, boundary conditions play a fundamental role in determining the nature of the dual field theory. In this talk, I will show how to exploit mixed boundary conditions to obtain dynamical electromagnetism in the boundary theory. This is necessary to apply AdSCFT to many realworld applications, e.g., magnetohydrodynamics, plasma physics, superconductors, etc. where dynamical gauge fields and Coulomb interactions are fundamental. As a proof of concept, I will show two emblematic cases. First, I will prove that the results from the 4dimensional EinsteinMaxwell bulk theory with these deformed boundary conditions are in perfect agreement with relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions. Second, I will discuss the collective excitations of a bonafide holographic superconductor and prove the existence of the AndersonHiggs mechanism therein.
会場: 中央大学後楽園キャンパス 6号館 6209教室 (メイン会場) / via Zoom
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
Algebra of symmetry in BFlike models in 3d and 4d
2023年2月22日(水) 14:00  15:30
Dr. Christophe Goeller (Humboldt Fellow, LudwigMaximiliansUniversität München, Germany)
In this talk, I will discuss the construction of the boundary symmetry algebra for BFlike theories in 3D and 4D. In the 3D case, the theory corresponds to (an extension of) 3D gravity allowing for a source of curvature and torsion. I will show how the study of the current algebra and its associated Sugawara construction allows for two notions of quadratic charges (the usual diffeomorphism and its "dual") independently of boundary conditions. I will discuss their resulting algebra and its relation with the usual construction of the asymptotic boundary algebra. In the 4D case, a similar yet fundamentally different construction is possible, similarly resulting in multiple quadratic charges. I will discuss their constructions and their possible relations to 4D gravity.
会場: コモンルーム 246248号室 とZoomのハイブリッド開催
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
Coherent sheaves, quivers, and quantum groups
2023年2月17日(金) 14:00  16:00
Dr. Gufang Zhao (Senior Lecturer, University of Melbourne, Australia)
This talk aims to illustrate symmetries in geometry. The first half surveys a few examples of parametrizing coherent sheaves on a variety and how quantum groups control the symmetry of parametrization space. The second half aims to illustrate some special cases when the variety is a local toric 3CalabiYau.
会場: コモンルーム 246248号室 とZoomのハイブリッド開催
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
String theory, N=4 SYM and Riemann hypothesis
2023年2月16日(木) 14:00  16:10
本多 正純 (京都大学 基礎物理学研究所 助教)
We discuss new relations among string theory, fourdimensional N=4 supersymmetric YangMills theory (SYM) and the Riemann hypothesis. It is known that the Riemann hypothesis is equivalent to an inequality for the sum of divisors function σ(n). Based on previous results in literature, we focus on the fact that σ(n) appears in a problem of counting supersymmetric states in the N=4 SYM with SU(3) gauge group: the Schur limit of the superconformal index plays a role of a generating function of σ(n). Then assuming the Riemann hypothesis gives bounds on information on the 1/8BPS states in the N=4 SYM. The AdS/CFT correspondence further connects the Riemann hypothesis to the type IIB superstring theory on AdS5×S5. In particular, the Riemann hypothesis implies a miraculous cancellation among KaluzaKlein modes of the supergravity multiplet and D3branes wrapping supersymmetric cycles in the string theory. We also discuss possibilities to gain new insights on the Riemann hypothesis from the physics side. This talk is based on a collaboration with Takuya Yoda (arXiv:220317091).
会場: コモンルーム 246248号室 とZoomのハイブリッド開催
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
Quantum groups and cohomology theories
2023年2月15日(水) 14:00  16:00
Dr. Yaping Yang (Senior Lecturer, University of Melbourne, Australia)
In the first half of my talk, I will review quantum groups at roots of unity and their representation theory. In the second half, I will explain a construction of new quantum groups using cohomology theories from topology. The construction uses the socalled cohomological Hall algebra associated to a quiver and an oriented cohomology theory. In examples, we obtain the Yangian, quantum loop algebra and elliptic quantum group, when the cohomology theories are the cohomology, Ktheory, and elliptic cohomology respectively.
会場: コモンルーム 246248号室 とZoomのハイブリッド開催
イベント公式言語: 英語
469 イベント
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