Quantum Matterセミナー
32 イベント

セミナー
Probing Majorana excitations in the Kitaev magnet αRuCl3 through bulk heat capacity measurements
2024年7月22日(月) 10:30  11:45
今村 薫平 (東京大学 大学院工学系研究科 物理工学専攻 博士課程／日本学術振興会 特別研究員 DC)
Recently, the layered honeycomb material αRuCl3 exhibits several anomalous features that are consistent with expectations of the Kitaev quantum spin liquid (KQSL) under inplane magnetic field. Most remarkably, finite planar thermal Hall conductivity has been observed, whose magnitude is close to the halfinteger quantization value expected for the chiral edge currents of Majorana fermions[1]. However, it has been reported that the thermal Hall conductivity shows strong sample dependence. Also, there are attempts to offer a different explanation by the bosonic edge excitations due to topological magnons or phonon. A key to distinguishing between fermionic and bosonic origins of unusual features in the highfield state of αRuCl3 is the difference in the field angle dependence of the excitation gap. Therefore, we distinguish these origins from combined lowtemperature measurements of highresolution specific heat and thermal Hall conductivity with rotating magnetic fields within the honeycomb plane. A distinct closure of the lowenergy bulk gap is observed for the fields in the RuRu bond direction, and the gap opens rapidly when the field is tilted. Notably, this change occurs concomitantly with the sign reversal of the Hall effect. General discussions of topological bands show that this is the hallmark of an angle rotation–induced topological transition of fermions, providing conclusive evidence for the Majoranafermion origin of the thermal Hall effect in αRuCl3[2]. Furthermore, to understand the nature of the highfield state, it is crucial to elucidate the effects of disorder, which inevitably exists in real materials. We artificially introduce point defects by electron irradiation and compare the lowenergy excitations in the pristine and irradiated sample by highresolution specific heat measurements. We observed an additional ingap Tlinear term in C/T, whose coefficient shows distinct fieldsensitive behaviors suggestive of Majorana physics in the KSL. This can be interpreted by the weak localization of Majorana fermions, which is induced by the disorder[3]. Moreover, recently, we succeed in synthesizing very highquality crystals of αRuCl3[4].
会場: via Zoom / セミナー室 (359号室) 3階 359号室とZoomのハイブリッド開催
イベント公式言語: 英語

A symmetry principle for gauge theories with fractons
2023年12月22日(金) 17:00  18:15
広野 雄士 (京都大学 大学院理学研究科 物理学・宇宙物理学専攻 物理学第二教室 特定准教授)
Fractonic phases are emergent quantum phases of matter that host excitations with restricted mobility. Although these phases have been considered to be of “beyond Landau” order, we show that a certain class of gapless fractonic phases are realized as a result of spontaneous breaking of generalized symmetries. The corresponding symmetries are continuous higherform symmetries whose conserved charges do not commute with spatial translations, and we refer to them as nonuniform higherform symmetries. For a given set of nonuniform symmetries, the effective theory associated with the spontaneous breaking of them can be constructed. At low energies, the theories reduce to known higherrank gauge theories such as scalar/vector charge gauge theories, and the gapless excitations in these theories are interpreted as Nambu–Goldstone modes for higherform symmetries. Due to the nonuniformity of the symmetry, some of the modes acquire a gap, which is the higherform analogue of the inverse Higgs mechanism of spacetime symmetries. In this formulation, the mobility restrictions are fully determined by the choice of the commutation relations of charges with translations. This approach allows us to view existing (gapless) fracton models such as the scalar/vector charge gauge theories and their variants from a unified perspective and enables us to engineer theories with desired mobility restrictions. Field: condensed matter physics Keywords: fractonic phases, higherform symmetries, NambuGoldstone modes, Higgs mechanism, gauge theories
会場: via Zoom
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
Quantum skyrmion Hall effect
2023年9月14日(木) 17:00  18:15
Ashley Cook (Group Leader, Correlations and Topology, Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems and Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Germany)
Field: condensed matter physics Keywords: topology, electronbased quantum skyrmions, spin, Berry curvature Abstract: Topological skyrmion phases of matter are recentlyintroduced topological phases of electronic systems in equilibrium, in which a system with more than one degree of freedom (e.g. spin and orbital degrees of freedom) realizes a topological state for a subset of the degrees of freedom (e.g. only spin). For topological skyrmion phases of spin, this topology is relevant even if spin is not conserved due to nonnegligible atomic spinorbit coupling, and is distinguished by a skyrmion forming in the spin texture over the Brillouin zone, distinct from a skyrmion forming in the texture of the projector onto occupied states over the Brillouin zone. We present results on three band Bloch Hamiltonians realizing this nontrivial spin topology, and outline some bulkboundary correspondence features, such as gapless edge states corresponding to zero net charge—but finite spin angular momentum—pumped across the bulk gap. Tracing out the orbital degree of freedom, we can identify this spin pumping with pumping of spin point charges, and local curvature of the kspace spin skyrmion with a Berry curvature of these spin point charges. That is, the spin pumping is identified with pumping of spin magnetic skyrmions, which reduce to point magnetic charges after tracing out the orbital degree of freedom. We therefore identify topological skyrmion phases as lattice counterparts of quantized transport of quantum magnetic skyrmions, a quantum skyrmion Hall effect. This indicates that the theory of the quantum Hall effect must be generalized, by relaxing the assumption of point charges.
会場: via Zoom
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
Electronic instabilities emerging from higherorder van Hove singularities
2023年7月24日(月) 17:00  18:15
Xinloong Han (Postdoctoral Fellow, Kavli Institute for Theoretical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China)
Time: 5pm ~ 6:15pm (JST); 10am ~ 11:15am (CET); 4pm ~ 5:15pm (Taiwan) Field: condensed matter physics Keywords: topological superconductor, Van Hove singularity, Hubbard model, Kagome lattices Abstract: Competing correlated electronic states are a central topic in condensed matter physics. A typical example is the close competition between spin density wave and dwave superconductivity in the Hubbard model on the square lattice near half filling where the band structures have saddle points at which the Fermi surface topology changes from hole type to electron type. The saddle points are called van Hove singularity (VHS) points, and host diverging density of states with powerlaw behavior in the two dimensions. Recently, another type of VHS, namely the higherorder VHS was investigated in ABCstacked trilayer graphene and twisted bilayer graphene. In this talk, I will first introduce the higherorder VHS, and make comparisons to the conventional VHS. Then I will discuss the enhanced nematicity driven by large flavor number with higherorder VHSs on the square and Kagome lattices. Finally, I will show that robust topological superconductivity can emerge on the square lattice due to interplay of spinorbital coupling and higherorder VHSs.
会場: コモンルーム 246248号室 とZoomのハイブリッド開催
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
Quantum skyrmion lattices in Heisenberg ferromagnets
2023年6月8日(木) 17:00  18:15
Andreas Haller (Postdoctoral Researcher, Department of Physics and Materials Science, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg)
Skyrmions are topological magnetic textures that can arise in noncentrosymmetric ferromagnetic materials. In most systems experimentally investigated to date, skyrmions emerge as classical objects. However, the discovery of skyrmions with nanometer length scales has sparked interest in their quantum properties. In this talk, I present our (numeric) results on the ground states of unfrustrated twodimensional spin1/2 Heisenberg lattices with DzyaloshinskiiMoriya interactions, where we discovered a broad region in the zerotemperature phase diagram which hosts quantum skyrmion lattices. The simulations are based on an established variational optimization algorithm for matrix product states called density matrix renormalization group, which can faithfully approximate the ground states of small 2D clusters well beyond system sizes amenable for exact diagonalization. We argue that the quantum skyrmion lattice phase can be detected experimentally in the magnetization profile via local magnetic polarization measurements as well as in the spin structure factor via neutron scattering experiments. Deep in the skyrmion ordered phase, we find that the quantum skyrmion lattice state is only weakly entangled with ‘domain wall' entanglement between quasiparticles and environment localized near the boundary spins of the skyrmion. In this ordered regime of weakly entangled entities, large clusters of O(1000) sites can be simulated with great efficiency. Field: condensed matter physics Keywords: quantum spin systems, topology, density matrix renormalization group
会場: via Zoom
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
Groundstate phases of the onedimensional SU(N)symmetric Kondo lattice model
2023年5月11日(木) 17:00  18:15
戸塚 圭介 (京都大学 基礎物理学研究所 准教授)
The Kondolattice model and its variants (e.g., the KondoHeisenberg model), in which itinerant fermions interact with immobile magnetic moments via spinexchange coupling (Kondo coupling), have been playing an important role in understanding the physics of heavyfermion systems. In this talk, I begin by quickly explaining how the SU(N) Kondolattice model, in which the spin SU(2) symmetry is generalized to SU(N), is realized in actual physical systems (e.g., cold fermions and twisted bilayer graphene), and then I focus on the groundstate properties of its onedimensional version. Specifically, when the Kondo coupling is sufficiently large, we find ferromagnetic metallic phases that can be established rigorously as well as several insulating ones. I also show that the SU(N) Kondolattice model provides a natural condensedmatter realization of supersymmetric [i.e., SU(N1)] models. Various (insulating) phases at small Kondo coupling are then explored using the machinery of bosonization and various conformal field theory (CFT) techniques, and the results are compared with the predictions of the LiebSchultzMattistype (or anomalymatching) argument. Field: condensed matter physics Keywords: Kondo lattice model, SU(N) symmetry, supersymmetry, heavyfermion systems, bosonization, conformal field theory
会場: via Webex
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
Topological Kondo superconductors
2023年3月2日(木) 17:00  18:15
YungYeh Chang (Postdoctoral Researcher, National Center for Theoretical Sciences & National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan)
Spintriplet pwave superconductors are promising candidates for topological superconductors. They have been proposed in various heterostructures where a material with strong spinorbit interaction is coupled to a conventional swave superconductor by proximity effect. However, topological superconductors existing in nature and driven purely by strong electron correlations are yet to be studied. Here we propose a realization of such a system in a class of Kondo lattice materials in the absence of proximity effect. Therein, the oddparity Kondo hybridization mediates ferromagnetic spinspin coupling and leads to spintriplet resonantvalencebond (tRVB) pairing between local moments. Spintriplet p±p’ wave topological superconductivity is reached when Kondo effect coexists with tRVB [1]. We identify the topological nature by the nontrivial topological invariant and the Majorana zero modes at edges. Our results on the superconducting transition temperature, Kondo coherent scale, and onset temperature of Kondo hybridization not only qualitatively but also quantitatively agree with the observations for UTe2, a Ubased ferromagnetic heavyelectron superconductor. *This work is supported by the National Science and Technology Council, Taiwan. Field: condensed matter physics Keywords: strongly correlated systems, topological superconductor, Kondo effect, resonant valence bond, heavyfermion compounds
会場: via Webex
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
Entanglement in nonHermitian quantum systems and nonunitary conformal field theories
2023年2月9日(木) 17:00  18:15
Chang PoYao (Assistant Professor, Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan)
Time: 5pm ~ 6:15pm (JST); 9am ~ 10:15am (CET); 4pm ~ 5:15pm (Taiwan) Entanglement is a powerful tool to diagnose manybody quantum systems. One example is the critical system where the low energy property can be described by conformal field theories (CFTs), and the central charge which uniquely characterizes the CFT can be perfectly extracted from the entanglement entropy. However, the entanglement properties for nonunitary CFTs are not well understood. Moreover, the entanglement properties in manybody microscopic models which can be described by nonunitary CFTs have not been explored. In this talk, I would like to demonstrate several nonHermitian systems which can be described by nonunitary CFTs, and show their entanglement properties can be correctly obtained by the proposed generic entanglement entropy. Field: Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: nonHermitian systems, conformal field theory, manybody systems, entanglement entropy
会場: via Webex
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
Phantom Bethe excitations and spin helices in integrable spin chains
2022年9月15日(木) 17:00  18:15
Vladislav Popkov (University Wuppertal, Germany)
We demonstrate the existence of a special chiral “phantom” mode with some analogy to a Goldstone mode in the anisotropic quantum XXZ Heisenberg spin chain. The phantom excitations contribute zero energy to the eigenstate, but a finite fixed quantum of momentum. The mode exists not due to symmetry principles, but results from nontrivial scattering properties of magnons with momentum k given by the anisotropy via cos (k) = Jz/Jx. The mode originates from special stringtype solutions of the Bethe ansatz equations with unbounded rapidities, the phantom Bethe roots. All such Bethe states are chiral (the simplest representative being factorized state with helicoidal magnetization profile) and exist in both periodic and open XXZ spin chain under finetuning. I show how phantom Bethe states can be generated dissipatively, by setting a polarization gradient via coupling the ends of the open spin chain to suitable dissipative baths. Spin helix eigenstates were observed and used in recent cold atom experiments, and led to further surprising findings.
会場: via Zoom
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
Adiabatic pumps in quantum spin systems
2022年7月12日(火) 16:00  17:15
塩崎 謙 (京都大学 基礎物理学研究所 助教)
The Thouless pump is a oneparameter cycle of 1dimensional gapped quantum systems with U(1) symmetry, which is classified by integers. In this talk, I introduce a generalization of the Thouless pump to quantum spin systems in any dimension with any finite group onsite symmetry. I show a simple model with Z_2 onsite symmetry, and how it is nontrivial via boundary degrees of freedom. Using the framework of the injective matrix product state, one can construct the topological invariant in a way similar to the Berry phase. If time allows, I will briefly introduce a group cohomology model by Roy and Harper for generic space dimensions and discuss its properties.
会場: via Zoom
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
Topological quantum effects in lowdimensional spin systems  The power of the boundary
2022年6月30日(木) 17:00  18:15
Thore Posske (Group Leader, I. Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Hamburg, Germany)
Manipulating the boundary of lowdimensional magnetic structures could grant control about topological magnetic quantum sates. I will discuss the creation of one and twodimensional topological quantum magnets by manipulating the boundary magnetization, address their stability against external perturbations, and discuss their possible application to quantum information processing.
会場: via Zoom
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
Topological aspects of nonHermitian physics
2022年6月21日(火) 16:00  17:15
大熊 信之 (京都大学 基礎物理学研究所 助教)
The past decades have witnessed an explosion of interest in topological materials, and a lot of mathematical concepts have been introduced in condensed matter physics. Among them, the bulkboundary correspondence is the central topic in topological physics, which has inspired researchers to focus on boundary physics. Recently, the concepts of topological phases have been extended to nonHermitian Hamiltonians, whose eigenvalues can be complex. Besides the topology, nonHermiticity can also cause a boundary phenomenon called the nonHermitian skin effect, which is an extreme sensitivity of the spectrum to the boundary condition. In this talk, I will explain recent developments in nonHermitian topological physics by focusing mainly on the boundary problem. As well as the competition between nonHermitian and topological boundary phenomena, I will discuss the topological nature inherent in nonHermiticity itself. Field: condensed matter physics Keywords: topological materials, nonHermitian systems, skin effect, bulkboundary correspondence
会場: via Zoom
イベント公式言語: 英語

Introduction to Topological Insulators: The Tenfold Classification of Topological Insulators and Superconductors Part.2
2022年6月13日(月) 14:00  15:30
邱 靖凱 (数理創造プログラム 上級研究員)
会場: via Zoom
イベント公式言語: 英語

Introduction to Topological Insulators: The Tenfold Classification of Topological Insulators and Superconductors Part.1
2022年5月24日(火) 14:00  15:30
邱 靖凱 (数理創造プログラム 上級研究員)
会場: via Zoom
イベント公式言語: 英語

Introduction to Topological Insulators: Topological Superconductors and Quantum Computing
2022年5月9日(月) 14:00  15:30
邱 靖凱 (数理創造プログラム 上級研究員)
会場: via Zoom
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
Local and global topology for Dirac points with multihelicoid surface states
2022年3月24日(木) 17:00  18:15
Tiantian Zhang (東京工業大学 理学院 特任助教)
Though topological invariants defined for topological semimetals are usually local ones, they also have a global nature. For example, the Z type local monopole charge C for Weyl points, has a global nature, telling us its influence to the rest of the Brillouin zone, giving rise to bulksurface correspondence associated with helical surface states. In Dirac systems, helical surface states are not guaranteed due to C=0. However, a new bulksurface correspondence associated with double/quadhelicoid surface states (DHSSs/QHSSs) can be obtained for Dirac points with the protection of a Z2 type monopole charge Q, which is defined in terms of the timereversal (T)glide (G) symmetry (TG)2= 1. Here we study the topology of Q for Z2 Dirac points and establish its bulksurface correspondence with strict proofs. We find that Q is equivalent to the Gprotected Z2 invariant v mathematically and physically in Z2 Dirac systems. This result is counterintuitive, since v is always trivial in Tpreserving gapped systems, and was thought to be illdefined in gapless systems. We offer a gaugeinvariant formula for Q, which is associated with DHSSs in both the spinless and spinful systems with single G. Q is formulated in a simpler form in spinless systems with two vertical G, associated with QHSSs, which is also entangled with fillingenforced topological band insulators in three space groups when a Tbreaking perturbation is introduced. Since Q is illdefined in spinful systems with two vertical G, QHSSs will not be held. Material candidate Li2B4O7 together with a list of possible space groups preserving QHSSs are also proposed for demonstration on our theory and further studies. *Detailed information about the seminar refer to the email.
会場: via Zoom
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
How is turbulence born: Spatiotemporal complexity and phase transition of transitional fluids
2022年2月24日(木) 17:00  18:15
HongYan Shih (Assistant Research Fellow, Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taiwan)
How a laminar flow becomes turbulence has been an unsolved problem for more than a century and is important in various industrial applications. Recently precise measurements in pipe flow experiments showed nontrivial spatiotemporal complexity at the onset of turbulence. Based on numerical evidence from the hydrodynamics equations, we discovered the surprising fact that the fluid behavior at the transition is governed by the emergent predatorprey dynamics of the important longwavelength mode, leading to the mathematical prediction that the laminarturbulent transition is analogous to an ecosystem on the edge of extinction. This prediction demonstrates that the laminarturbulent transition is a nonequilibrium phase transition in the directed percolation universality class, and provides a unified picture of transition to turbulence emerging in systems ranging from turbulent convection to magnetohydrodynamics. *Detailed information about the seminar refer to the email.
会場: via Zoom
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
Bethe ansatz and quantum computing
2022年1月26日(水) 22:00  23:15
Rafael I. Nepomechie (Professor, Physics Department, University of Miami, Florida, USA)
We begin with a brief review of the Heisenberg quantum spin chain and its remarkable solution found by Bethe. We then review a probabilistic algorithm for preparing exact eigenstates of this model on a quantum computer. An exact formula for the success probability is presented, and the computation of correlation functions is discussed. A generalization of the algorithm to open chains with boundaries is also noted.
会場: via Zoom
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
Topological exchange statistics in one dimension
2021年11月17日(水) 17:00  18:15
Harshman Nathan (Department of Physics, American University, USA)
In two dimensions, the topological approach to exchange statistics predicts the existence of anyons obeying statistics given by the braid group. However, in one dimension the topological approach is ambiguous because particles cannot exchange without coincidence and scattering. I will review the topological approach and show how old controversies can be resolved using orbifolds (roughly, manifolds with symmetry) to describe configuration space for onedimensional systems. Using orbifolds also predicts new topological physics, including possibilities for “traid group” statistics when there are threebody interactions in one dimension and nonabelian statistics for indistinguishable particles on a ring. *Detailed information about the seminar refer to the email.
会場: via Zoom
イベント公式言語: 英語

セミナー
Nonlinear response in strongly correlated systems
2021年10月20日(水) 17:00  18:15
Robert Peters (京都大学 大学院理学研究科 講師)
Nonlinear responses in condensed matter are intensively studied because they provide rich information about materials and hold the possibility of being applied in diodes or highfrequency optical devices [14]. While nonlinear responses in noninteracting models have been explored widely, the effect of strong correlations on the nonlinear response is still poorly understood. This talk will introduce a Green's function method to calculate nonlinear conductivities in strongly correlated materials [56]. Correlation effects are thereby included by the selfenergy of the material. I will then use this method to study the nonlinear conductivities in noncentrosymmetric felectron systems. The first system is a heavy Fermion system, where a nonreciprocal conductivity appears in the ferromagnetic phase. The nonreciprocal conductivity thereby always occurs perpendicular to the magnetization of the system and has a strong spin dependence, which might be advantageous for spintronic applications. The second system is a model corresponding to the WeylKondo semimetal Ce3Bi4Pd3, in which a giant spontaneous Hall effect without timereversal symmetry breaking has been observed [7]. This Hall effect can be explained as a nonlinear Hall effect in an inversionsymmetry broken Weylsemimetal. It has been shown that the nonlinear Hall effect is related to the Berry curvature dipole [4]. Our study shows that the magnitude of the experimentally observed nonlinear Hall effect can be explained by the strong correlations inherent in this felectron material [8]. *Detailed information about the seminar refer to the email.
会場: via Zoom
イベント公式言語: 英語
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