iTHEMS Theoretical Physics Seminar
61 events

Statistical methods to probe binary stellar evolution with ZTF and LISA data
May 23 (Tue) at 13:30  15:00, 2023
Lucy McNeill (JSPS Fellow, Department of Physics, Division of Physics and Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University)
The LaserInterferometerSpaceAntenna (LISA) will be capable of detecting all galactic double neutron star binaries (DNSBs) with orbital periods < 20 minutes, as well as 10100’s of thousands of double white dwarf binaries. I will present our method to use LISA detections to constrain the formation frequencies of galactic DNSBs, which are determined by supernova physics and various mass exchange processes. Next, I summarise the key differences in DNSBs and white dwarf binaries (WDBs) in the context of future LISA observations, as well as the current Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) for the latter. Then we will examine the current catalogue of short period white dwarf binaries (orbital periods < 1 hour) detected by ZTF so far, including the first ever measurement (Burdge et al. 2023) of the temperature of a mass transferring white dwarf in a binary. Here I will make the case that taken together, these observations are in conflict with the theoretical picture commonly used in Galactic modelling specifically related to cooling and mass transfer leading to WDB mergers. However, heating from tidal interactions may explain and mediate this inconsistency. Finally I will put these results into context regarding preparing for the unprecedented data set of galactic white dwarf binaries from LISA in the 2030s.
Venue: Hybrid Format (3F #359 and Zoom), Main Research Building
Event Official Language: English

Seminar
Towards Smatrix theory of unstable particles
March 15 (Wed) at 13:30  15:00, 2023
Katsuki Aoki (Research Assistant Professor, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University)
The Smatrix is one of the central objects in quantum field theory and gains renewed interest recently to understand the possible structures of lowenergy effective field theories and quantum gravity. However, most of the particles have finite decay widths and thus do not appear in asymptotic states. Therefore, the standard Smatrix arguments may not be directly applied to scatterings of such unstable particles and we need to formulate “the Smatrix theory of unstable particles” to properly understand the availability of the Smatrix arguments in realistic systems. In this talk, I will talk about the first steps towards this goal. In particular, I will discuss nonperturbative consequences of unitarity in a scattering amplitude of unstable particles and its analytic properties.
Venue: Hybrid Format (Common Room 246248 and Zoom)
Event Official Language: English

Seminar
Boltzmann or Bogoliubov? A Case of Gravitational Particle Production
February 9 (Thu) at 13:30  15:00, 2023
Kunio Kaneta (Lecturer, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo Woman's Christian University)
Despite its weakness, gravity is the primordial source of particle production in the early Universe. All the particles, including dark matter, can inevitably be created after the end of inflation through gravity. To study this production channel, two different approaches have commonly been considered, one of which is based on the Boltzmann equation, and the other is based on the Bogoliubov transformation. The former approach has widely been used in phenomenological studies of dark matter, while the latter has been developed to describe particle production in curved spacetime. I will discuss when these two approaches are equivalent and when they are not by considering the pure gravitational production of a scalar particle.
Venue: Hybrid Format (Common Room 246248 and Zoom)
Event Official Language: English

Seminar
Tetraneutron system studied by RIbeam experiments
January 17 (Tue) at 13:30  15:00, 2023
Susumu Shimoura (Research Scientist, Spin isospin Laboratory, RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research (CPR))
Multineutron systems have attracted a longstanding attention in nuclear physics. In several decades, experimental attempts have been made with a particular focus on the tetraneutron system. Among them, the two different experiments, the doublecharge exchange reaction on 4He and the alphaparticle knockout reaction from the 8He, show a sharp peak just above the threshold in the fourneutron spectra, which could be a signature of a "resonant state", separate from a broad bump structure at higher excitation energy regions. Both the experiments have been realized by using the 8He beam above 150 A MeV at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory. Details of the two experiments including basic idea, experimental techniques, and analysis are presented as well as a historical review of previous experimental attempts. Emphasis is made for the experimental conditions for populating a kinematically isolated tetraneutron system with very small momentum transfer. The spectral shape is discussed by means of reaction processes and correlations in the final tetraneutron system with several recent theoretical studies.
Venue: Common Room #246248 (Main Venue) / via Zoom
Event Official Language: English

Seminar
Chiral effects on lepton transport in corecollapse supernovae
December 13 (Tue) at 13:30  15:00, 2022
DiLun Yang (Assistant Research Fellow, Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taiwan)
Dynamics of leptons such as electrons and neutrinos play an important role in the evolution of corecollapse supernovae (CCSN). Nevertheless, chirality as one of fundamental microscopic properties that could affect lepton transport, through e.g. weak interaction, has been mostly overlooked. In this talk, I will discuss how chiral effects such as the renowned chiral magnetic effect (CME), generating an electric charge current along magnetic fields with chirality imbalance, could result in the unstable modes of magnetic fields and inverse cascade, which potentially influence the matter evolution in CCSN and pulsar kicks. I will also show how an effective CME could be realized via the backreaction from neutrino radiation even in the absence of an axial charge characterizing an unequal number of right and lefthanded electrons.
Venue: Hybrid Format (Common Room 246248 and Zoom)
Event Official Language: English

Seminar
Cosmic Birefringence: how our universe violates leftright symmetry
December 6 (Tue) at 13:30  15:00, 2022
Tomohiro Fujita (Assistant Professor, Waseda Institute for Advanced Study, Waseda University)
Our universe is lefty: recent observations imply that the polarization plane of light that has traveled through cosmic space for 13.8 billion years rotates about 0.3 degrees to the left. A similar phenomenon is known to occur in materials such as crystals, and is called birefringence. But why does birefringence occur even in the outer space, which is supposed to be a vacuum? Dark energy, the unknown energy that fills the universe, may be responsible for it. In this seminar, I will review observations and theories of cosmic birefringence and discuss future prospects.
Venue: Hybrid Format (Common Room 246248 and Zoom)
Event Official Language: English

Seminar
Tetra and pentaquarks with multiflavor contents
November 22 (Tue) at 13:30  15:00, 2022
Atsushi Hosaka (Professor, Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University)
Recent hadron experiments keep providing evidences of exotic hadrons with multiquark components. These multiquarks are selfarranged into various configurations such as diquarks, hadronic molecules and so on. In this seminar, we discuss possible structures of tetra and pentaquarks with multiflavor contents including recently observed T_cc, Pc and P_cs. Based on our recent studies in the quark model and hadron models, we discuss where and how different quark structures emerge.
Venue: Hybrid Format (Common Room 246248 and Zoom)
Event Official Language: English

Merger and postmerger of binary neutron stars with a quarkhadron crossover equation of state
November 15 (Tue) at 15:00  17:01, 2022
Yongjia Huang (Ph.D. Student, University of Science and Technology of China, China)
The state of the ultradense matter remains one of the longstanding open questions. Neutron star (NS), as it cools down the eons ahead after the birth in the supernova explosion, provides an astrophysical laboratory to investigate the dense, strongly interacting nuclear matter at zero temperature. On the other hand, the most intense gravitational wave(GW) radiation is produced in regions of the strong gravitational field by coherent movements of masses with large compactness. Therefore, GW from binary neutron star(BNS) merger naturally contains the information from the ultradense matter. In this talk, I will introduce our recent work, "Merger and postmerger of binary neutron stars with a quarkhadron crossover equation of state ."Quarkhadron crossover(QHC) is one way of hadronquark transition, which generally predicts a peak in sound speed vs. density, and so releases more pressure during the hadronquark transition. I will first briefly summarize the features of QHC EOS and the BNS merger. I will then focus on how information on the hadronquark transition shows in the GW and its spectrum during the BNS merger.
Venue: via Zoom
Event Official Language: English

Seminar
Expanding Edges of Quantum Hall Systems in a Cosmology Language  Hawking Radiation from de Sitter Horizon in Edge Modes
November 11 (Fri) at 16:00  17:30, 2022
Masahiro Hotta (Assistant Professor, Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University)
Expanding edge experiments are promising to open new physics windows of quantum Hall systems. In a static edge, the edge excitation, which is described by free fields decoupled with the bulk dynamics, is gapless, and the dynamics preserve conformal symmetry. When the edge expands, such properties need not be preserved. We formulate a quantum field theory in 1+1 dimensional curved spacetimes to analyze the edge dynamics. We propose methods to address the following questions using edge waveforms from the expanding region: Does the conformal symmetry survive? Is the nonlinear interaction of the edge excitations induced by edge expansion? Do the edge excitations interact with the bulk excitations? We additionally show that the expanding edges can be regarded as expanding universe simulators of twodimensional dilatongravity models, including the JackiwTeitelboim gravity model. As an application, we point out that our theoretical setup might simulate emission of analog Hawking radiation with the GibbonsHawking temperature from the future de Sitter horizon formed in the expanding edge region.
Venue: #345347, 3F, Main Research Building (Main Venue) / via Zoom
Event Official Language: English

Seminar
Tensor renormalization group approach to quantum fields on a lattice
November 8 (Tue) at 13:30  15:00, 2022
Shinichiro Akiyama (Specially Appointed Assistant Professor, Quantum Software Project, The University of Tokyo)
Tensor renormalization group (TRG) approach is a variant of the realspace renormalization group to evaluate the path integral defined on the thermodynamic lattice, without resorting to any probabilistic interpretation for the given Boltzmann weight. Moreover, since the TRG can directly deal with the Grassmann variables, this approach can be formulated in the same manner for the systems with bosons, fermions, or both. These advantages of the TRG approach have been confirmed by the earlier studies of various lattice theories, which suggest that the TRG enables us to investigate the parameter regimes where it is difficult to access with the standard stochastic numerical methods, such as the Monte Carlo simulation. In this talk, explaining our recent applications of the TRG approach to several lattice models, we demonstrate the efficiency of the TRG as a tool to investigate lattice theories particularly in higher dimensions and future perspective.
Venue: Hybrid Format (Common Room 246248 and Zoom)
Event Official Language: English

Seminar
UltraLight Axion Dark Matter: BoseEinstein condensates and superfluids in the sky
October 11 (Tue) at 13:30  15:00, 2022
Elisa G.M. Ferreira (Project Assistant Professor, Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU), The University of Tokyo)
The nature of dark matter (DM) is one of the biggest mysteries in cosmology. There are many different models to explain the nature of this elusive component. In this talk I will present a class of dark matter models: ultralight dark matter (ULDM) or ultralight axions (ULA). I will show the different models present in the literature and classify them according to the way they behave on small scales. One of the most interesting features of this class of DM models is that it might condense in the interior of the halos of galaxies forming a BoseEinstein condensate (BEC) or superfluid. This interesting quantum phenomena on macroscopic scales, and the wave nature of ULDM leads to different and interesting astrophysical consequences that can be probed on small scales. I will quickly review first the fuzzy dark matter model, one of the most well studied ULA models, where I will present its description, predictions and current bounds. Then I will introduce the DM superfluid model, where, upon condensation in the interior of galaxies, DM dynamics represents that of MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) on galactic scales. This behaviour can address some of the curiosities of the behaviour of DM on small scales. I plan to show the theoretical description of this model and its interesting phenomenology.
Venue: Hybrid Format (Common Room 246248 and Zoom)
Event Official Language: English

Seminar
Test of the Cosmological principle by observing the primordial gravitational waves
July 27 (Wed) at 13:30  15:00, 2022
Yuko Urakawa (Associate Professor, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK))
In this talk, using the generalized deltaN formalism, which dramatically facilitates a computation of the primordial density perturbation and the primordial GWs (PGWs), we address a violation of the Cosmological principle, namely a violation of the global isotropy in the Universe. It’s turned out that measuring the PGWs provides a powerful tool to explore a violation of the global isotropy. If time permits, I will also discuss some prospects on LiteBIRD.
Venue: Hybrid Format (Common Room 246248 and Zoom)
Event Official Language: English

Seminar
Gradient flow exact renormalization group 2
July 6 (Wed) at 13:30  17:00, 2022
Hiroshi Suzuki (Professor, Graduate School of Science, Kyushu University)
Wilson’s exact renormalization group (ERG), which tells how a system changes under the scale transformation, provides a fundamental framework to define quantum field theory even beyond the perturbation theory. It has however been known that it is difficult to preserve a manifest gauge symmetry in ERG because of the usage of the momentum cutoff in ERG. Here, we propose a possible modification of ERG, the gradient flow exact renormalization (GFERG), which preserves a manifest gauge symmetry being based on a gaugecovariant diffusion equation. I explain the basic idea and properties of GFERG. If time permits, I want to present a possible application of GFERG to the consideration of the axial anomaly.
Venue: via Zoom
Event Official Language: English

Seminar
Gradient flow exact renormalization group 1
July 5 (Tue) at 13:30  17:00, 2022
Hiroshi Suzuki (Professor, Graduate School of Science, Kyushu University)
Wilson’s exact renormalization group (ERG), which tells how a system changes under the scale transformation, provides a fundamental framework to define quantum field theory even beyond the perturbation theory. It has however been known that it is difficult to preserve a manifest gauge symmetry in ERG because of the usage of the momentum cutoff in ERG. Here, we propose a possible modification of ERG, the gradient flow exact renormalization (GFERG), which preserves a manifest gauge symmetry being based on a gaugecovariant diffusion equation. I explain the basic idea and properties of GFERG. If time permits, I want to present a possible application of GFERG to the consideration of the axial anomaly.
Venue: via Zoom
Event Official Language: English

Seminar
Dress code for infrared safe Smatrix in QED
June 22 (Wed) at 13:30  15:00, 2022
Sotaro Sugishita (Designated Assistant Professor, Institute for Advanced Research (IAR), Nagoya University)
We consider the infrared (IR) aspects of the gauge invariant Smatrix in QED. I will review the problem of IR divergences in QED, and introduce the dressed state formalism to obtain IRsafe Smatrix elements. I will show a condition for dressed states to obtain IRsafe Smatrix elements, and explain that this condition can be interpreted as the memory effect and is related to asymptotic symmetry. I also explain that IR divergences are necessary to prohibit the violation of asymptotic symmetry. We also argue that the difference between dressed and undressed states can be observed, even if we are able to observe an inclusive crosssection summing over soft photons.
Venue: Hybrid Format (Common Room 246248 and Zoom)
Event Official Language: English

Seminar
Is the Standard Model in the Swampland? Consistency Requirements from Gravitational Scattering
November 2 (Tue) at 14:30  16:00, 2021
Katsuki Aoki (Research Assistant Professor, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University)
Underlying assumptions on ultraviolet completion can impose constraints on its lowenergy effective field theories (EFTs). The swampland program aims to clarify consistent and inconsistent EFTs with quantum gravity and aims to understand quantum gravity from lowenergy physics and vice versa. One of the most wellestablished constraints is called positivity bounds, provided that general assumptions such as Poincare invariance and unitarity are satisfied at all scales. I will first explain how these consistency conditions arise especially in the presence of gravity. I will then show that the positivity bound is violated if the Standard Model of particle physics coupled to General Relativity is extrapolated up to 10^16 GeV, requiring new physics there or below. The precise value of the cutoff is determined by hadronic physic while it is insensitive from nongravitational physics beyond the Standard Model. This is a signal from established physics for the necessity of quantum gravity below 10^16 GeV.
Venue: Hybrid Format (Common Room 246248 and Zoom)
Event Official Language: English

Seminar
Smatrix Unitarity toward UV Completion
September 13 (Mon) at 13:30  15:00, 2021
Keisuke Izumi (Assistant Professor, KobayashiMaskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI), Nagoya University)
Einstein gravity is not renormalizable and does not hold perturbative unitarity at high energy. This is the main reason why the construction of quantum gravity is difficult. A conjecture was proposed by Llewellyn Smith, "renormalizablility and treeunitarity at high energy give the same conditions for theories". This conjecture would be important because it shows that, if a theory is constructed s.t. unitarity is satisfied, renormalizablility holds automatically, and vice versa. Unfortunately, a counterexample was pointed out. If a theory involves higher derivatives, there exists a theory which is renormalizable but does not satisfy treeunitarity. A candidate of quantum gravity, the quadratic gravity (R_{\mu\nu}^2 gravity), is one of the examples. Therefore, Llewellyn Smith's conjecture would not be useful for the discussion of quantum gravity. Then, we introduce a new conjecture, "renormalizablility and Smatrix unitarity (or often called pseudounitarity) at high energy give the same conditions for theories". In this talk, Llewellyn Smith's conjecture and our contribution to it will be explained. Then, our new conjecture will be introduced. Finally, it will be shown that our conjecture works well even in theories with higher derivatives.
Venue: via Zoom
Event Official Language: English

Seminar
Application of AdS/CFT to nonequilibrium phenomena in external electric fields
August 16 (Mon) at 13:00  15:00, 2021
Shunichiro Kinoshita (Collaborative Researcher, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University)
The AdS/CFT correspondence is a useful tool for studying stronglycoupled gauge theories. According to this correspondence, the D3/D7 brane system in string theory is one of the simplest toy model dual to supersymmetric QCDlike gauge theory. In the dual field theory, the mesons, i.e., the quarkantiquark bound states are stable in vacuum when the quark is massive, while the dielectric breakdown occurs by pair production of quarkantiquark under strong electric fields. In this talk, I will review a series of our works of D3/D7 systems and show timedependent, nonequilibrium phenomena driven by external electric fields such as suddenly increasing or rotating electric fields.
Venue: via Zoom
Event Official Language: English

Seminar
NonUnitary TQFTs from 3d N=4 Rank0 SCFTs
July 5 (Mon) at 13:00  14:30, 2021
Myungbo Shim (Kyung Hee University, Republic of Korea)
We propose a novel procedure of assigning a pair of nonunitary topological quantum field theories (TQFTs), TFT_\pm[T_0], to a (2+1)D interacting N=4 superconformal field theory (SCFT) T_0 of rank 0, i.e. having no Coulomb and Higgs branches. The topological theories arise from particular degenerate limits of the SCFT. Modular data of the nonunitary TQFTs are extracted from the supersymmetric partition functions in the degenerate limits. As a nontrivial dictionary, we propose that F = max{ log S^{(+)}_{0\alpha} } = max{ log S^{()}_{0\alpha} }, where F is the round threesphere free energy of T_0 and S^{(\pm)}_{0\alpha} is the first column in the modular Smatrix of TFT_\pm. From the dictionary, we derive the lower bound on F, F > log(\sqrt{(5\sqrt{5})/10}) \simeq 0.642965, which holds for any rank 0 SCFT. The bound is saturated by the minimal N=4 SCFT proposed by GangYamazaki, whose associated topological theories are both the LeeYang TQFT. We explicitly work out the (rank 0 SCFT)/(nonunitary TQFTs) correspondence for infinitely many examples. Before going to the technical part, we provide some background materials including some peculiar features in 3d gauge theories, some supersymmetries, anyons, and some modular data of MTC in this talk.
Venue: via Zoom
Event Official Language: English

Seminar
Toward QCDbased description of dense baryonic matter
June 29 (Tue) at 13:00  14:30, 2021
Yuki Fujimoto (Postdoctoral Scholars, Department of Physics, University of Washington, USA)
The equation of state (EoS) of dense baryonic/quark matter is the crucial ingredient for understanding neutron stars. I briefly review the current state of the highdensity matter EoS based on the QCD perspectives. In this talk, I particularly focus on the perturbative QCD (pQCD) EoS, which was previously thought to be useless at realistic density because it is plagued by the large uncertainty. I introduce our recent analysis of the EoS calculated within the pQCD framework with the resummation [Fujimoto & Fukushima, 2011.10891]. I discuss our scheme for the Hard Dense Loop resummation, which turns out to reduce the uncertainty compared with the conventional pQCD estimate without resummation. Our result apparently extends the applicability of the QCDbased EoS down to densities realized inside neutron stars and infers a smooth matching with the baryonic EoS.
Venue: via Zoom
Event Official Language: English
61 events
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