iTHEMS Theoretical Physics Seminar

Seminar

iTHEMS Theoretical Physics Seminar

S-matrix Unitarity toward UV Completion

September 13 at 13:30 - 15:00, 2021

Prof. Keisuke Izumi (Assistant Professor, Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University)

Einstein gravity is not renormalizable and does not hold perturbative unitarity at high energy. This is the main reason why the construction of quantum gravity is difficult. A conjecture was proposed by Llewellyn Smith, "renormalizablility and tree-unitarity at high energy give the same conditions for theories". This conjecture would be important because it shows that, if a theory is constructed s.t. unitarity is satisfied, renormalizablility holds automatically, and vice versa. Unfortunately, a counterexample was pointed out. If a theory involves higher derivatives, there exists a theory which is renormalizable but does not satisfy tree-unitarity. A candidate of quantum gravity, the quadratic gravity (R_{\mu\nu}^2 gravity), is one of the examples. Therefore, Llewellyn Smith's conjecture would not be useful for the discussion of quantum gravity. Then, we introduce a new conjecture, "renormalizablility and S-matrix unitarity (or often called pseudo-unitarity) at high energy give the same conditions for theories". In this talk, Llewellyn Smith's conjecture and our contribution to it will be explained. Then, our new conjecture will be introduced. Finally, it will be shown that our conjecture works well even in theories with higher derivatives.

Venue: via Zoom

Event Official Language: English

Seminar

iTHEMS Theoretical Physics Seminar

Application of AdS/CFT to non-equilibrium phenomena in external electric fields

August 16 at 13:00 - 15:00, 2021

Dr. Shunichiro Kinoshita (Collaborative Researcher, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University)

The AdS/CFT correspondence is a useful tool for studying strongly-coupled gauge theories. According to this correspondence, the D3/D7 brane system in string theory is one of the simplest toy model dual to supersymmetric QCD-like gauge theory. In the dual field theory, the mesons, i.e., the quark-antiquark bound states are stable in vacuum when the quark is massive, while the dielectric breakdown occurs by pair production of quark-antiquark under strong electric fields. In this talk, I will review a series of our works of D3/D7 systems and show time-dependent, non-equilibrium phenomena driven by external electric fields such as suddenly increasing or rotating electric fields.

Venue: via Zoom

Event Official Language: English

Seminar

iTHEMS Theoretical Physics Seminar

Non-Unitary TQFTs from 3d N=4 Rank-0 SCFTs

July 5 at 13:00 - 14:30, 2021

Dr. Myungbo Shim (Kyung Hee University, Republic of Korea)

We propose a novel procedure of assigning a pair of non-unitary topological quantum field theories (TQFTs), TFT_\pm[T_0], to a (2+1)D interacting N=4 superconformal field theory (SCFT) T_0 of rank 0, i.e. having no Coulomb and Higgs branches. The topological theories arise from particular degenerate limits of the SCFT. Modular data of the non-unitary TQFTs are extracted from the supersymmetric partition functions in the degenerate limits. As a non-trivial dictionary, we propose that F = max{ -log |S^{(+)}_{0\alpha}| } = max{ -log |S^{(-)}_{0\alpha}| }, where F is the round three-sphere free energy of T_0 and S^{(\pm)}_{0\alpha} is the first column in the modular S-matrix of TFT_\pm. From the dictionary, we derive the lower bound on F, F > -log(\sqrt{(5-\sqrt{5})/10}) \simeq 0.642965, which holds for any rank 0 SCFT. The bound is saturated by the minimal N=4 SCFT proposed by Gang-Yamazaki, whose associated topological theories are both the Lee-Yang TQFT. We explicitly work out the (rank 0 SCFT)/(non-unitary TQFTs) correspondence for infinitely many examples. Before going to the technical part, we provide some background materials including some peculiar features in 3d gauge theories, some supersymmetries, anyons, and some modular data of MTC in this talk.

Venue: via Zoom

Event Official Language: English

Seminar

iTHEMS Theoretical Physics Seminar

Toward QCD-based description of dense baryonic matter

June 29 at 13:00 - 14:30, 2021

Dr. Yuki Fujimoto (The University of Tokyo)

The equation of state (EoS) of dense baryonic/quark matter is the crucial ingredient for understanding neutron stars. I briefly review the current state of the high-density matter EoS based on the QCD perspectives. In this talk, I particularly focus on the perturbative QCD (pQCD) EoS, which was previously thought to be useless at realistic density because it is plagued by the large uncertainty. I introduce our recent analysis of the EoS calculated within the pQCD framework with the resummation [Fujimoto & Fukushima, 2011.10891]. I discuss our scheme for the Hard Dense Loop resummation, which turns out to reduce the uncertainty compared with the conventional pQCD estimate without resummation. Our result apparently extends the applicability of the QCD-based EoS down to densities realized inside neutron stars and infers a smooth matching with the baryonic EoS.

Venue: via Zoom

Event Official Language: English

Seminar

iTHEMS Theoretical Physics Seminar

Black Hole Information Paradox and Wormholes

June 21 at 13:00 - 14:30, 2021

Dr. Kanato Goto (Special Postdoctoral Researcher, iTHEMS)

In this talk, I will explain about the recent progress in the black hole information paradox that I am involved with. The information paradox arises when a black hole evaporates by emitting Hawking radiation due to the quantum effects. Time dependence of the entropy of Hawking radiation is diagnosis of information loss caused by the black hole evaporation. If information is not lost, the entropy of Hawking radiation should obey the so-called Page curve. In recent research developments, it was found that “the quantum extremal islands” reproduce the unitary Page curve in an evaporating black hole. I will argue about how the quantum extremal islands are derived from the computation of the entropy of Hawking radiation using the gravitational path-integral.

Venue: via Zoom

Event Official Language: English

Seminar

iTHEMS Theoretical Physics Seminar

Quantum mechanical description of energy dissipation and application to heavy-ion fusion reactions

February 16 at 13:00 - 14:30, 2021

Mr. Masaaki Tokieda (Graduate students, Department of Physics, Tohoku University)

For theoretical description of heavy-ion fusion reactions, two different models have been used depending on the incident energy. At energies above the Coulomb barrier, importance of energy dissipation and fluctuation has been deduced from scattering experiments. To describe them phenomenologically, the classical Langevin equation has successfully been applied. At energies below the Coulomb barrier, on the other hand, the quantum coupled-channels method with a few number of internal states has been applied, and it has succeeded in explaining sub-barrier fusion reactions. While each method succeeds in each energy range, a unified description of heavy-ion fusion reactions from sub-barrier energies to above barrier energies is still missing. To achieve this, we need to treat dissipation and fluctuation quantum mechanically. In order to describe dissipation and fluctuation quantum mechanically, we have applied ideas of open quantum systems to heavy-ion fusion reactions. I will talk about recent development in this talk. First I will introduce a model Hamiltonian to treat dissipation and fluctuation quantum mechanically, and explain its character and a strategy for numerical studies. I will then apply the model to a fusion problem, and discuss a role of energy dissipation during quantum tunneling. Finally I will discuss a possible future direction for a unified description of heavy-ion fusion reactions.

Venue: via Zoom

Event Official Language: English

Seminar

iTHEMS Theoretical Physics Seminar

Quantum kinetic theory for chiral and spin transport in relativistic heavy ion collisions and core-collapse supernovae

February 4 at 13:00 - 14:30, 2021

Dr. Di-Lun Yang (Assistant professor, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University)

Recently, the anomalous transport phenomena of relativistic fermions associated with chirality and spin induced by external fields have been greatly explored in different areas of physics. Notably, such phenomena are in connection to various quantum effects such as quantum anomalies and spin-orbit interaction. The quark gluon plasmas produced from relativistic heavy ion collisions (HIC) and the core-collapse supernovae (CCSN) are both the systems in extreme conditions with high temperature or density and the presence of strong magnetic and vortical fields. Meanwhile, the abundance of light quarks and neutrinos as relativistic fermions created therein accordingly makes these two systems ideal test grounds for studying such exotic transport phenomena. Inversely, the anomalous transport may also give rise to unexpected impacts on the evolution of both systems. However, to analyze such dynamical quantum effects, a novel quantum transport theory delineating the evolution of chirality imbalance and spin has to be introduced. In this talk, I will discuss recent developments and applications of the quantum kinetic theory for chiral and spin transport in the context of HIC and CCSN.

Venue: via Zoom

Event Official Language: English

Seminar

iTHEMS Theoretical Physics Seminar

Many body problems from quarks to stellar evolutions

January 28 at 13:30 - 15:00, 2021

Prof. Nobutoshi Yasutake (Associate Professor, Chiba Institute of Technology)

The many-body problems are major problems that need to be clarified not only in nuclear physics, but also in astronomy. In this seminar, I introduce stellar evolutions as gravitational many-body problems, and also hadronic matter as quantum many-body problems, based on the Lagrangian schemes. The macroscopic stars and the microscopic hadronic matter look completely different issues. But in this seminar, I introduce the similarities between the two problems. For hadronic matter, we adopt the color molecular dynamics to understand the behaviors and properties of hadronic matter in the framework of QCD. Although molecular dynamics can not be the first-principle, they are sometimes useful to understand many-body quantum properties. In this talk, we introduce the current status of our color molecular dynamics.

Venue: via Zoom

Event Official Language: English

Seminar

iTHEMS Theoretical Physics Seminar

Classical liquids and functional renormalization group

December 17 at 13:00 - 14:30, 2020

Dr. Takeru Yokota (Postdoctoral Researcher, Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo)

Development of methods for classical statistical mechanics is desired for accurate predictions of the structures and thermodynamic properties of liquids. A powerful framework to describe classical liquids is density functional theory (DFT). In the quantum case, there have been recent attempts to develop accurate methods with combining DFT and the functional renormalization group (FRG), which is another framework to deal with many-body systems utilizing evolution equations, and such approaches are expected to work also in the classical case. In this presentation, I will talk about a new approach for classical liquids aided by FRG. The formalism and some ideas to incorporate higher-order correlation functions to systematically improve the accuracy will be shown. I will also present a numerical demonstration in a one-dimensional exactly solvable system and discuss the results by comparing to other conventional methods such as the hypernetted chain.

Venue: via Zoom

Event Official Language: English

Seminar

iTHEMS Theoretical Physics Seminar

Conserved charges in gravity and entropy

December 10 at 13:00 - 14:30, 2020

Dr. Shinya Aoki (Professor, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University)

We propose a manifestly covariant definition of a conserved charge in gravity. We first define a charge density from the energy momentum tensor with a Killing vector, if exists in the system, and calculate the energy (and angular momentum) of the black hole by a volume integral. Our definition of energy leads to a correction of the known mass formula of a compact star, which includes the gravitational interaction energy and is shown to be 68\% of the leading term in some case. Secondly we propose a new method to define a conserved charge in the absence of Killing vectors, and argue that the conserved charge can be regarded as entropy, by showing the 1st law of thermodynamic for a special case. We apply this new definition to the expanding universe, gravitational plane waves and the black hole. We discuss future directions of our research.

Venue: via Zoom

Event Official Language: English

Seminar

iTHEMS Theoretical Physics Seminar

KPZ equation, attractive bosons, and the Efimov effect

December 3 at 13:00 - 14:30, 2020

Dr. Yusuke Nishida (Associate Professor, Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology)

The Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation for surface growth has been a paradigmatic model in nonequilibrium statistical physics. In particular, it in dimensions higher than two undergoes a roughening transition from smooth to rough phases with increasing the nonlinearity. It is also known that the KPZ equation can be mapped onto quantum mechanics of attractive bosons with a contact interaction, where the roughening transition corresponds to a binding transition of two bosons with increasing the attraction. Such critical bosons in three dimensions actually exhibit the Efimov effect, where a three-boson coupling turns out to be relevant under the renormalization group so as to break the scale invariance down to discrete one. On the basis of these facts linking the two distinct subjects in physics, we predict that the KPZ roughening transition in three dimensions shows either the discrete scale invariance or no intrinsic scale invariance.

Venue: via Zoom

Event Official Language: English

Seminar

iTHEMS Theoretical Physics Seminar

Some idea on quantum tunneling via Lefschetz thimbles

November 12 at 10:30 - 12:00, 2020

Dr. Yuya Tanizaki (Assistant Professor, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University)

In this talk, I will explain my previous study with Takayuki Koike on a possible approach to quantum tunneling via Lefschetz thimbles. We classified all the complex saddle points for the real-time path integral for the symmetric double-well quantum mechanics. We looked at various properties of those complex solutions, which motivated us to conclude that the computation of tunneling amplitudes for the symmetric double well requires the interference of infinitely many Lefschetz thimbles. I would also like to talk about some speculations, admittingly being very optimistic.

Venue: via Zoom

Event Official Language: English

Seminar

iTHEMS Theoretical Physics Seminar

Toward simulating Superstring/M-theory on a Quantum Computer

October 23 at 17:00 - 18:00, 2020

Dr. Masanori Hanada (Department of Mathematics, University of Surrey, UK)

We present a framework for simulating superstring/M-theory on a quantum computer, based on holographic duality. Because holographicduality maps superstring/M-theory to quantum field theories (QFTs), we can study superstring/M-theory if we can put such QFTs on a quantum computer --- but it still looks like a complicated problem, if we use a usual lattice regularization. Here we propose an alternative approach, which turns out to be rather simple: we map the QFT problems to matrix models, especially the supersymmetric matrix models such as the Berenstein-Maldacena-Nastase (BMN) matrix model. Supersymmetric matrix models have natural applications to superstring/M-theory and gravitational physics, in an appropriate limit of parameters. Furthermore, for certain states in the Berenstein-Maldacena-Nastase (BMN) matrix model, several supersymmetric quantum field theories dual to superstring/M-theory can be realized on a quantum device. It is straightforward to put the matrix models on a quantum computer, because they are just quantum mechanics of matrices, and the construction of QFTs is mapped to the preparation of certain states. We show the procedures are conceptually rather simple and efficient quantum algorithms can be applied. In addition, as a (kind of) byproduct, we provide a new formulation of pure Yang-Mills on quantum computer.

Venue: via Zoom

Event Official Language: English

Seminar

iTHEMS Theoretical Physics Seminar

Realistic shell model and chiral three-body force

October 22 at 13:30 - 15:00, 2020

Dr. Tokuro Fukui (Researcher, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University)

We show an evolution to derive the effective Hamiltonian in the shell-model framework starting from two- and three-body interactions based on the chiral effective field theory. A new way to calculate three-body matrix elements of the chiral interaction with the nonlocal regulator is proposed. We apply our framework to the p-shell nuclei and perform benchmark calculations to compare our results with those by an ab initio no-core shell-model. We report that our results are satisfactory and the contribution of the three-body force is essential to explain experimental low-lying spectra of the p-shell nuclei. We discuss the contribution of the three-body force on the effective single-particle energy extracted from the monopole interaction. Next, we investigate the shell evolution on the pf-shell nuclei. We show that the monopole component of the shell-model effective Hamiltonian induced by the three-body force plays an essential role to account for the experimental shell evolution. Moreover, we present our latest results on the investigation of the possible neutron dripline of the Ca isotopes. Finally, we discuss very neutron-rich systems, namely, the oxygen isotopes at the dripline and beyond, where the interplay between the three-body force and continuum states plays an important role.

Venue: via Zoom

Event Official Language: English

Seminar

iTHEMS Theoretical Physics Seminar

Lefschetz-thimble inspired analysis of the Dykhne–Davis–Pechukas method and an application for the Schwinger Mechanism

August 21 at 13:00 - 14:30, 2020

Dr. Takuya Shimazaki (Researcher, Hadron Theory Group, The University of Tokyo)

Dykhne–Davis–Pechukas (DDP) method is a common approximation scheme for the transition probability in two-level quantum systems, as realized in the Landau–Zener effect, leading to an exponentially damping form comparable to the Schwinger pair production rate. We analyze the foundation of the DDP method using a modern complex technique inspired by the Lefschetz-thimble method. We derive an alternative and more adaptive formula that is useful even when the DDP method is inapplicable. As a benchmark, we study the modified Landau–Zener model and compare results from the DDP and our methods. We then revisit a derivation of the Schwinger Mechanism of particle production under electric fields using the DDP and our methods. We find that the DDP method gets worse for the Sauter type of short-lived electric pulse, while our method is still a reasonable approximation. We also study the Dynamically Assisted Schwinger Mechanism in two methods.

Venue: via Zoom

Event Official Language: English

Seminar

iTHEMS Theoretical Physics Seminar

Nambu-Goldstone fermion in a Bose-Fermi mixture with an explicitly broken supersymmetry

August 7 at 13:00 - 14:30, 2020

Dr. Hiroyuki Tajima (PhD, Department of Natural Science, Kochi University)

Supersymmetry, which is a symmetry associated with interchange between bosons and fermions, is one of the most important symmetries in high-energy physics but its evidence has never been observed yet. Apart from whether supersymmetric partners such as squark exist or not in our world, it is an interesting problem to explore the consequences of the supersymmetry in an ultracold atomic gas. In this study, we address the Nambu-Goldstone mode called Goldstino associated with the spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in a Bose-Fermi mixture. While the explicit supersymmetry breaking is unavoidable even in cold atomic systems, the energy gap in Goldstino spectra can be measured in such atomic systems. By comparing the energy gaps obtained from the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation and the random phase approximation, we elucidate how the Goldstino acquires the energy gap due to the explicit breakings. We also show effects of Goldstino pole on the fermionic single-particle spectral functions, which can be measured in the recent experiments.

Venue: via Zoom

Event Official Language: English

Seminar

iTHEMS Theoretical Physics Seminar

Complex Langevin study of an attractively interacting two-component Fermi gas in 1D with population imbalance

July 10 at 13:30 - 14:30, 2020

Dr. Shoichiro Tsutsui (Special Postdoctoral Researcher, Quantum Hadron Physics Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science (RNC))

We investigate an attractively interacting two-component Fermi gas in 1D described by the Gaudin-Yang model with population imbalance. While the Gaudin-Yang model is known as a solvable model based on the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz, the binding energy and mass of poralon at finite temperature and moderate impurity density are still unknown. Moreover, in such a system, quantum Monte Carlo simulation suffers from the sign problem because the population imbalance makes the fermion determinant non-positive definite. In this study, we apply complex Langevin method, a holomorphic extension of the stochastic quantization to overcome the sign problem. We first confirm our numerical results satisfy a criteria for correct convergence [1], and present how the polaron energy depends on temperature and density of impurity. We also compare our results with a recent study based on a diagrammatic approach [2].

Venue: via Zoom

Event Official Language: English

Seminar

iTHEMS Theoretical Physics Seminar

Field theoretical approach to relativistic hydrodynamics

June 12 at 13:00 - 14:30, 2020

Dr. Masaru Hongo (Visiting Scientist (Academia), iTHEMS / Postdoctoral Research Associate, Physics Dept., The University of Illinois at Chicago, UIC)

Hydrodynamics is a low-energy effective theory of a conserved charge density, which describes a long-distance and long-time behavior of many-body systems. It is applicable not only to a non-relativistic weakly-interacting dilute gas but also a relativistic strongly-interacting dense liquid like a quark-gluon plasma. The main purpose of this seminar is to explain how we can derive the hydrodynamic equation from the underlying field-theoretical description of systems [1-3]. Our derivation is based on the recent development of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, and we show that the procedure to derive hydrodynamic equations is similar to the so-called renormalized/optimized perturbation theory. Also, to describe transport phenomena in local thermal equilibrium, we give a path-integral formula for a thermodynamic functional, which results in the emergence of thermally induced curved spacetime [2]. These results enable us to derive hydrodynamic equation based on quantum field theories.

Event Official Language: English