セミナーレポート
289 ニュース

20221124
セミナーレポートiTHEMS Biology Seminar by Prof. Zhichao (Chichau) Miao on November 24, 2022
In this week’s biology seminar, we have invited Prof. Zhichao Miao (Guangzhou Laboratory, China) to tell us about “RNAPuzzles  the evaluation and automation of RNA 3D structure”. He introduced the development history and current situation of the RNA 3D structure prediction problem. With agreement from crystallographers, the RNA structures are predicted by various groups before the publication of the crystal structures. Systematic protocols for comparing models and crystal structures are described and analyzed. The technic is becoming routine and accurate. However, we are surprised that even with the great success of AlphaFold for protein structure prediction, the lack of information of RNA structure is still holding back the use of advanced supervised machine learning technics. The RNAPuzzles project is working hard to open the great possibilities in this task. He also presented the results of predicting the viral RNA structures, including the SARSCoV2. We are looking forward to see the further development. In the seminar, we had many insightful questions and discussions. We are very thankful for Prof. Miao’s talk and this great communication opportunity. Reported by Yingying Xu

20221107
セミナーレポートDMWG Seminar by Dr. Oscar Macias on October 28, 2022
Dark matter (DM) is only a part of the mysterious phenomena in our Universe. As our exploration of the Universe proceeds, we frequently meet new mysteries. The Fermi bubble is such an example. FermiLAT founds extended gammaray emissions in the vertical direction from the Galactic Center and the origin is still unknown. Observations in other wavelengths could give some hints about its interpretation. The Saggitarius stellar stream, which is believed to be a dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) being disrupted, seems to overlap with the Fermi Bubble region. Old star populations including millisecond pulsars, which are famous gammaray emitters, can be expected in dSphs. However, the spectrum of millisecond pulsars is different from that of the Fermi Bubble and the interpretation cannot be possible in a straightforward way. Another key ingredient for this consideration is the gas component of the Saggitarius stream. In such environments, inverse Compton emission should contribute to the highenergy regime and gammaray emission should be interpreted with two components. The prediction of this twocomponent model fairly matches the observed properties of the Fermi Bubble. This fact, at this stage, leads to another hint to DM study. Currently, one of the tightest constraints of the DM annihilation crosssection is obtained from gammaray observations of dSphs. When we consider such investigations, usually it is assumed that astrophysical gammarays are subtle enough. However, regarding the fact that the tidally disrupted dSph of Saggitarius emits gamma rays from interactions of baryonic components, we must be careful about the target selection of dSphs for future observations. It is suggested in the talk that the ordering of the promising dSphs for the future gammaray search of DM could be different. Interaction between visible and invisible sectors in our Universe always brings us fruitful insights. We will meet further indications in this era by boosting astrophysical studies. Reported by Nagisa Hiroshima

20221027
セミナーレポートiTHEMS Biology Seminar by Dr. Hiroyuki Ebata on October 27, 2022
On October 27th, Dr. Ebata talked about experiments and theoretical modeling of cell migration dynamics. In the introductory part, he explained the relation between fluctuations of the cell shape and migration dynamics, as well as the basics of durotaxis. After reviewing the experimental setups, he showed us the experimental results of cell migration dynamics on hydrogels with heterogeneous stiffness. He constructed models based on symmetry arguments and consistently explained the observed phenomena. We really enjoyed his clear talk with plenty of exciting movies on cell migration. Reported by Kyosuke Adachi

20221024
セミナーレポートiTHEMS Theoretical Physics Seminar by Prof. Elisa G.M. Ferreira on October 11, 2022
In her talk, Dr. Elisa Ferreira exploited some of the intriguing models of dark matter (DM), one of the biggest mysteries in cosmology. While there are many different models to explain the nature of this elusive component, she presented a class of dark matter models: ultralight dark matter (ULDM) or ultralight axions (ULA). She explained that one of the most interesting features of this class of DM models is that it might condense in the interior of the halos of galaxies forming a BoseEinstein condensate or superfluid. This interesting quantum phenomena on macroscopic scales, and the wave nature of ULDM leads to different and interesting astrophysical consequences that can be probed on small scales. She first reviewed the fuzzy dark matter model, one of the most well studied ULA models, and then introduced the DM superfluid model. Upon condensation in the interior of galaxies, DM dynamics in this model can represent that of socalled modified Newtonian dynamics on galactic scales. Dr. Ferreira showed the theoretical description of this model and its interesting phenomenology, especially on small scales. Reported by Ryo Namba

20221024
セミナーレポートiTHEMS Seminar by Dr. Filippo Anzuini on September 27, 2022
The main focus of Dr. Filippo Anzuini's talk was on axions, which are pseudoGoldstone bosons that provide a solution to the strong CP problem, and are prominent candidates for dark matter. In neutron stars, it has been shown recently that the potential of the QCD axion acquires finite density corrections that shift the axion field expectation value, which can be large compared to the vanishing expectation value in vacuum. Such a shift leaves an imprint on typical neutron star observables such as the redshifted thermal luminosity, which can be used to constrain the axion parameter space. In his talk, Dr. Anzuini discussed the coupling of axions with photons, which modifies Maxwell’s equations and alters the neutron star magnetic field. By performing stateoftheart magnetothermal simulations, he performed his calculations of the axioninduced perturbations to the neutron star’ magnetic field, and showed that they grow on relatively short timescales. Intense electric currents then lead to enhanced ohmic dissipation, increasing the stars’ observable thermal luminosity. The activation of such mechanisms depends on the axion decay constant and the axion mass. His results indeed opened a new astrophysical avenue to constrain axions, extending significantly the parameter range that can be probed with direct axion searches. Reported by Ryo Namba

20221024
セミナーレポートiTHEMS Theoretical Physics Seminar by Dr. Yuko Urakawa on July 27, 2022
In her talk, Prof. Yuko Urakawa discussed the generalized deltaN formalism of cosmological perturbations, which dramatically facilitates a computation of the primordial density perturbation and the primordial gravitational waves. In particular, she addressed a violation of the cosmological principle, namely a violation of the global isotropy in the Universe. A major implication of her study is that measuring the PGWs provides a powerful tool to explore a violation of the global isotropy. Such effects can potentially be searchable by the future spacebased CMB polarization mission LiteBIRD. Reported by Ryo Namba

20221021
セミナーレポートiTHEMS Biology Seminar by Mr. Keiichi Morita on October 20, 2022
I talked about my research progress about a mathematical model on how interspecific pollen transfer can affect coexistence and evolution of sex allocation. First, analytical results without evolution showed that interspecific pollen transfer had negative impacts on coexistence by preventing fertilization in the other species. Also, asymmetry of sex allocation between species promoted extinction of either species. Second, analytical results with evolution of sex allocation revealed that sex allocation always evolved into one regardless of strength of interspecific pollen transfer. Although my model is very tough to understand, thank you for your listening and giving me comments! Reported by Keiichi Morita

20221014
セミナーレポートiTHEMS Biology Seminar by Dr. LazaroGuevara Jose Miguel on October 6, 2022
On October 6th, 2022, we had the pleasure to have José Miguel LázaroGuevara, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of British Columbia, in our Biology seminar. His talk was related to pharmacogenomics. The idea behind the field of pharmacogenomics is that the effectiveness of drugs in medical treatments is partially determined by the genetic variation of patients, but producing genomewide data for one patient is costly and not affordable for many patients or insurance companies. For these cases, LázaroGuevara proposes using an extremelow coverage genotyping, which consists on sequencing random sections of the genome of on a patient. By doing so, it is possible to later use a background reference (the genome of other genetically related people) to apply an imputation method to infer the parts of the genome that were not directly sequenced. By showing clinical cases on patients from a population from Utah, USA, the extremelow coverage method seems to be a reliable and effective method to detect associations between genetic variation and the effectiveness of drug treatment. Reported by José Said GutiérrezOrtega

20221013
セミナーレポートiTHEMS Math Seminar by Mr. Hayato Imori on July 25, 2022
On July 25, there was a math seminar by Dr. Hayato Imori. He gave a talk entitled Introduction to instanton knot homology. In the first part of his talk, the speaker explained the fundamental construction of Morse homology for finite dimensional manifolds by giving concrete examples of Morse functions. He then explained how the discussion extends to the case of infinite dimensional manifolds obtained by singular connections. Reported by Masaki Taniguchi

20221011
セミナーレポートABBLiTHEMS Joint Astro Seminar by Dr. Ryo Namba on October 7, 2022
Blazar observations have provided tantalizing evidence for the presence of magnetic fields in the extragalactic regions, where astrophysical processes may not be an efficient source for their generation. While a natural speculation is to associate the production of such largescale magnetic fields to inflationary physics, it has been known that magnetogenesis solely from inflation is quite challenging. In this talk Dr. Ryo Namba discussed some mechanisms, successful/unsuccessful, for production of magnetic fields in the primordial universe, as well as the constraints from theoretical consistencies and observational data. Reported by Shigehiro Nagataki

20220926
セミナーレポートABBLiTHEMS Joint Astro Seminar by Dr. Filippo Anzuini on September 26, 2022
Neutron stars challenge current models of highly dense matter. Despite being the targets of numerous observational campaigns (e.g. gravitationalwave searches and Xray observations), their equation of state is still unknown. One of the most exciting possibilities is that “unconventional” particles such as hyperons may appear in neutron star cores. Hyperons have a major impact on the observed thermal luminosity, because they accelerate the cooling rate via direct Urca processes, which copiously increase the neutrino emission from the core. Such mechanism is often considered to be a key signature of hyperon concentrations at high densities. Hyperon superfluidity plays a major role as well, because it can suppress the neutrino emissivity exponentially. The hope is that a comparison of the theoretical cooling curves against the available data of thermallyemitting neutron star can hint towards the existence of hyperons and their superfluidity. There is one ingredient, however, that is often neglected in neutron star cooling models: internal heating. The magnetic field of neutron stars decays due to the dissipation of the electric currents circulating in the crust, generating substantial Joule heating in the shallower layers. The thermal power generated by this process can counterbalance hyperon fast cooling, making it difficult to infer the presence of hyperons from the available thermal luminosity data, and complicating the link between measured thermal emission and internal composition. The speaker showed that this is the case for magnetars, because their crustal temperature is almost independent of hyperon direct Urca cooling in the core, regardless of whether hyperons are superfluid or not. Likewise, thermal luminosity data of moderately magnetized neutron stars are not suitable to extract information about the internal composition, as long as hyperons are superfluid. During/after the talks, there were some interesting questions and discussions. The seminar was done in a hybrid style. Reported by Shigehiro Nagataki

20220921
セミナーレポートReport of DM3 Workshop on September 1517, 2022
Please enter the seminar report here!The study of dark matter (DM) has a long history. It starts in the 1930s from the article that Zwicky pointed out the existence of a huge invisible mass in galaxy clusters. We now know that about a quarter of the total energy density of the Universe is occupied by DM. But we still do not understand its nature, even we do not know whether or not it is a particle. We have three kinds of strategies to probe DM socalled collider, direct detection, and indirect detection experiments. By establishing a smooth connection between each other with theoretical support, we should approach a better understanding of DM. With this rationale, the iTHEMS DM working group held an international workshop "DM3 Deep insights and Multiple strategies for Deciphering the Mystery of Dark Matter" during Sep.1517. The theme of the workshop can be summarized as just a simple question, "what is DM for you?" The workshop was composed of 18 invited talks for reviews of various DM studies and a poster session for individual presentations. The 1st day has been devoted to the discussion about DM search with astrophysical objects. On the 2nd day, we paid much attention to the particle nature of DM. Novel ideas for candidates and techniques to probe a huge parameter space of DM are exhibited. We went through the intersection between cosmicray study and DM search on the final day of the workshop. The latest status of the DM study was presented in posters. Throughout the workshop, attendees discussed the nature and probe for DM regarding multiple aspects. According to the followup questionnaire, they said that "there are differences between the view before and after the workshop" and "would like to continue studying DM". After the workshop, we reconsider the question again: "what is DM for you?" There have been so many answers to the question till now. Continuing the study of DM, we believe that we see a consensus someday. Reported by Nagisa Hiroshima

20220916
セミナーレポートABBLiTHEMS Joint Astro Seminar by Dr. Naomi Tsuji on September 16, 2022
The MeV gammaray domain is the only unexplored window among recent multiwavelength observations in astrophysics, often referred to as the "MeV gap". To fulfill this gap, there are several ongoing and planned projects of MeV gammaray telescopes. The measurement of MeV gamma rays (both continuum and line emission) would give us new insight into many topics in astrophysics, such as relativistic jets, particle acceleration, and origin of matter. In advance of the future MeV gammaray missions, we have been working on prediction of the MeV gammaray sky, which is helpful to determine what kinds of sources can be detectable with the future telescopes. In order to explore the MeV gammaray sources, Tsujisan and her collaborators performed a catalog crossmatching between the hard Xray (Swift/BAT) and GeV gammaray (Fermi/LAT) catalogs, resulting in 145 firmly crossmatched sources. Combined with the Galactic diffuse emission, which is calculated by GALPROP to reconcile the cosmicray and gammaray spectra with observations by AMS02, Voyager, and FermiLAT, the allsky maps in the MeV gammaray band can be produced. This is also used to investigate a longstanding problem in the MeV gammaray astrophysics: the origin of the diffuse emission from the inner Galaxy, measured by COMPTEL. Tsujisan reported the analysis and results in detail, and introduce future missions of the MeV gammaray detectors. There were useful discussions among the speaker and audience during/after the talk. Reported by Shigehiro Nagataki

20220905
セミナーレポートABBLiTHEMS Joint Astro Seminar by Dr. Tomohiko Oka on September 2, 2022
Supernova remnants (SNRs) are believed to be the site of cosmic ray acceleration up to PeV (called PeVatron), but there is no conclusive observational evidence. The possible reason is that only young SNRs (t_age < 1 kyr) can accelerate CRs up to PeV, and then the particles escape at the early stage, thus, the opportunity to observe them is limited. To investigate this scenario, Okasan and his collaborators observed and analyzed the following two SNRs. First, they focused on SNR G106.3+2.7, the most promising SNR as a PeVatron, since 100 TeV gamma rays have been detected with air shower experiments. With the gammaray observation results, they discussed the origin of the PeV CR in the vicinity of this middleaged SNR (t_age = 510 kyr) and then obtained the following interpretation: CRs accelerated at the SNR in the past are illuminating the molecular cloud and producing gamma rays at present. Second, they analyzed the observation data around SNR HB9 and newly found gammaray emissions outside the SNR shell at the molecular cloud region. The gammaray emission can be explained by the protons accelerated and escaped from the SNR in the past. Therefore, they have attempted to measure the time evolution of the maximum acceleration energy at the SNR by comparing the gammaray spectra at the SNR shell and cloud regions. In this seminar, Okasan reported the analysis results of those two SNRs. Following the seminar talk, we discussed about the SNRs and highenergy gammarays from them. Reported by Shigehiro Nagataki

20220905
セミナーレポートiTHEMSRNC Meson Science Lab. Joint Seminar by Dr. Natsuki Tomida on August 26, 2022
Natsuki Tomida (SACRA, Kyoto Univ.) gave a hybrid talk on her experimental research on the bound eta'meson in nuclei. This is related to the topic "Mesons in Nuclei" which is one of the central subjects in modern hadron physics. Both experimentalists and theorists from Nishina Center and iTHEMS joined the seminar, and there was a hot discussion on this interesting topic. Natsuki joined iTHEMS on Aug.1, 2022 as a visiting scientist to promote collaboration between SACRA's MACS program at Kyoto Univ. and RIKEN iTHEMS. On Sept. 2021, 2022, she will visit iTHEMS again together with 11 undergraduate and graduate students of Kyoto University. Reported by Tetsuo Hatsuda

20220902
セミナーレポートiTHEMS Biology Seminar by Dr. Hiroshi Yokota on September 1, 2022
In the iTHEMS biology seminar on September 1st, I, Hiroshi Yokota, talked about a theoretical model of chromosome condensation based on Langevin simulation. In this model, the twist and the writhe structures on biopolymer is quantified in a computational manner. In this seminar, I enjoyed the discussion with audiences on the computational method and the definition of the twist and the writhe. Thank you so much! Reported by Hiroshi Yokota

20220826
セミナーレポートABBLiTHEMS Joint Astro Seminar by Dr. Yosuke Mizuno on August 26, 2022
Dr. Yosuke Mizuno presented the first Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observations of Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the Galactic center source associated with a supermassive black hole. These observations were conducted in 2017 using a global interferometric array of eight telescopes operating at a wavelength 1.3 mm. A variety of imaging and modeling analyses all support an image that is dominated by a bright, thick ring with a diameter of ~50 microarcsecond. Using a large suite of numerical simulations, The EHT group demonstrated that the EHT images of Sgr A* are consistent with the expected appearance of a Kerr black hole with mass ∼4 million solar mass, which is inferred to exist at this location based on previous infrared observations of individual stellar orbits, as well as maser propermotion studies. Their model comparisons disfavor scenarios where the black hole is viewed at high inclination (i > 50 deg), as well as nonspinning black holes and those with retrograde accretion disks. Our results provide direct evidence for the presence of a supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way. In the seminar, Dr. Yosuke Mizuno focused on more theoretical interpretation and model comparison to understand the accretion flow properties nearby Sgr A*. Reported by Shigehiro Nagataki

20220808
セミナーレポートiTHEMS Math Seminar by Prof. Narutaka Ozawa on August 2, 2022
On August 2, Professor Narutaka Ozawa (RIMS, Kyoto University) gave a talk entitled "Product Replacement Algorithm, Semidefinite Programming, and Operator Algebras" in the iTHEMS Math Seminar. He elegantly explained how his recent study on Kazhdan's property (T) ties the field of functional analysis/operator algebras and that of computer sciences. Reported by Michiya Mori

20220805
セミナーレポートiTHEMS Math Seminar by Dr. Hokuto Konno on July 15, 2022
On July 15, there was a math seminar by Professor Konno. He gave an introductory talk on the SeibergWitten Floer homotopy type. Reported by Keita Mikami

20220804
セミナーレポートSeminar by Dr. Xavier RocaMaza on August 3, 2022
As a part of the RCNP domestic workshop on lowenergy nuclear physics and highenergy astrophysics (RCNP研究会「低エネルギー核物理と高エネルギー天文学で読み解く中性子星」), the special seminar entitled "How does subatomic matter organize itself? A lowenergy nuclear physics perspective" was given by Prof. Xavier RocaMaza in U. Milan. This seminar is supported by Gravitational Wave and Equation of State Working Group (GWEOS WG), RIKEN iTHEMS Program. The equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter is one of the essential things in nuclear physics. There have been many attempts to determine parameters characterizing the EoS experimentally, which have become paid attention more. He introduced various attempts and theoretical mechanisms, including cuttingedge proposals. More than 80 participants attended the seminar, including from the foreign country. Reported by Tomoya Naito

20220729
セミナーレポートiTHEMS Colloquium by Prof. Yasunori Nomura on July 26, 2022
Prof. Yasunori Nomura, the director of the Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, the University of California, Berkeley, visited iTHEMS and gave a colloquium entitled “From the Black Hole Conundrum to the Structure of Quantum Gravity” on July 26th. Prof. Nomura started the colloquium by explaining that the two pillars of modern physics, quantum mechanics and general relativity are actually at odds with each other, but each of them usually governs a different domain of physical phenomena, thus obscuring the incompatibility. The focus of the colloquium lies on one of the areas where both quantum mechanics and general relativity become equally important, namely quantum theory of black holes. Prof. Nomura illustrated how the famous phenomenon of black holes discovered by Stephen Hawking, Hawking radiation leads to socalled information paradox, in which the conservation the probability appears to be violated during the process of the radiation from the horizon. He went on to describe the key ingredients in solving the paradox, which are the concept of holography, the stretched horizon, and AdS/CFT correspondence. In the latter part of the colloquium, Prof. Nomura pedagogically showed the audience the most recent development in the study of the information paradox. The calculation including the contribution from “wormholes” was shown to reproduce the Page curve implying the recovery of the lost probability. The same calculation was also explained through formalism which was developed by Prof. Nomura himself. He concluded with the message that the study of the black hole conundrum is thus revealing the structure of quantum gravity, which involves with a wide range of various research fields such as high energy physics and astrophysics, quantum information science, and manybody physics. The colloquium was taken place at the 2F Large Meeting Room of RIBF Building and was attended by a limited number of audience in person due to the wide spreading of COVID19, but more than eighty people joined through zoom. Reported by Tsukasa Tada

20220725
セミナーレポートiTHEMS Biology Seminar by Dr. Namiko Mitarai on July 7, 2022
Dr. Namiko Mitarai (Niels Bohr Institute) gave us an amazing talk in the biology seminar. She told us about the collaborative works with experimental biologists on a microbial world. Some viruses that infect bacteria are known to provide immunity to infection by the same virus. According to her, noimmune bacteria can be protected from infection when the ratio of immune bacteria is substantially high in the population, which reminds us of our current cases for Covid19. Interestingly, the metabolic state of host (bacteria) also affects the virus infection. The talk was very very exciting. In the end of her seminar, she also showed us the tips for the successful collaboration with experimental biologists: (1) We (theorists) should care about them. (2) They (experimental biologists) should care about us. During and after the talk, there were lively discussion between the speaker and iTHEMS researchers. Thanks Mitaraisan!! Reported by Gen Kurosawa

20220715
セミナーレポートiTHEMS Biology Seminar by Dr. Junnosuke Teramae on July 14, 2022
In this week’s biology seminar, we were very happy to have Dr. Junnosuke Teramae from Kyoto University to tell us about the mysterious stochastic behavior of neurons and synapses in the brain. Many biological experimental observations are reported. However, how this stochasticity is beneficial for computation and learning in the brain remains largely unknown. Dr. Teramae presented his work on developing an efficient learning algorithm inspired by this brain behavior. The algorithm is based on Gibbssampling which allow us to efficiently obtain highdimensional sampling results. The algorithm shows similar stochastic behavior of the brain, which other machine leaning algorithms doesn’t show. In the end, Dr. Teramae briefly showed us the algorithm enables us to reproduce the recently discovered efficient powerlaw coding in the cortex. Even the seminar time is ended, the discussion continued for a long while. The seminar inspired many open questions on brain behavior and learning algorithms, both for the speaker and the audiences. We look forward to further development on the subjects. We thank Dr. Junnosuke Teramae and everyone joined the seminar. Reported by Yingying Xu

20220715
セミナーレポートQuantum Matter Seminar by Dr. Ken Shiozaki on July 12, 2022
Prof. Ken Shiozaki gave a seminar about adiabatic cycles of quantum spin systems. Topological phases of matter without ground state degeneracy are known as inevitable phases. In the literature, their topological properties have been wellstudied in freefermion and manybody systems. The speaker started with the transversefield Ising model and the RiceMele model to demonstrate the pumping of the 1D chain in an adiabatic cycle. He then generalized the concept to cover broader systems, including general spatial dimensions and generic models with any onsite symmetry, such as timereversal, Z2 Ising, and U(1). He demonstrated that one can classify adiabatic cycles of a spin model, which can be characterized by a Z2 topological invariant. This talk showed that symmetryprotected topological phases emerge by performing an adiabatic cycle. Reported by ChenHsuan Hsu (YITP, Kyoto University)

20220713
セミナーレポートiTHEMS Theoretical Physics Seminar by Prof. Hiroshi Suzuki on July 5, 2022
The iTHEMSphys intensive lecture was held on July 5 and 6, 2022. The speaker is Prof. Hiroshi Suzuki at Kyushu University. The title is “Gradient flow exact renormalization group.” Wilson’s exact renormalization group (ERG), which tells how a system changes under the scale transformation, provides a fundamental framework to define quantum field theory even beyond the perturbation theory. It has, however, been known that it is difficult to preserve a manifest gauge symmetry in ERG because of the usage of the momentum cutoff in ERG. Recently, he has proposed a possible modification of ERG, the gradient flow exact renormalization (GFERG), which preserves a manifest gauge symmetry being based on a gaugecovariant diffusion equation. He has explained the basic idea and properties of GFERG. He has also presented a possible application of GFERG to the consideration of the axial anomaly. The lecture was held via Zoom. There were about 30 participants from iTHEMS and other universities. The participants enjoyed fruitful discussions throughout the lecture. Reported by Kengo Kikuchi

20220706
セミナーレポートiTHEMS Biology Seminar by Mr. Keiichi Morita on June 23, 2022
I talk about how evolution of sexual traits such as ornaments of guppies can affect coexistence of two closely related species. First, I introduce "reproductive interference," sexual interaction driving evolution of sexual traits. Second, I show how to formulate population dynamics of two closely related species with reproductive interference. Next, I introduce mathematical modeling of quantitative genetics in order to formulate trait evolution. Finally, I show results of analysis and simulation by combining population dynamics and evolution (i.e., ecoevolutionary feedbacks). In future works, I should the effect of costs of evolution or the other species. Thank you for your listening and giving me comments! Reported by Keiichi Morita

20220705
セミナーレポートQuantum Matter Seminar by Dr. Thore Posske on June 30, 2022
Dr. Thore Posske from the University of Hamburg gave an online seminar about controlling topological quantum effect in spin systems by manipulating the boundary. He first introduced the idea that topology can connect multiple subfields in physics and then showed how a 1D spin chain can be controlled to form a helix or the ground state by manipulating the evolution of the two chain ends. Since the different quantum states can be controlled by the boundary, this is a potential platform for quantum computing to generate distinct quantum states. Furthermore, the boundary idea was extended to 2D spin systems. By properly changing the spins on the edges, a skyrmion can emerge. In the end, the speaker talked about an experimental approach to distinguishing the topological phases in systems with periodic boundary conditions by multipulse spectroscopy, and applied these ideas to 1D topological superconductors. Reported by Thore Posske (University of Hamburg) and ChingKai Chiu

20220704
セミナーレポートABBLiTHEMS Joint Astro Seminar by Mr. Tomoki Matsuoka on July 1, 2022
Mr. Tomoki Matsuoka gave an excellent talk on the longterm evolution of a supernova remnant hosting a double neutron star binary. He presented that stellar mass loss is one of the crucial elements determining the fate of corecollapse supernovae progenitors (SNe). Since the material released from the progenitor will be distributed as circumstellar medium (CSM), it can also influence the subsequent evolution of the SN or supernova remnant (SNR). Despite its importance, mass loss histories predicted by stellar evolution models have not been incorporated with modeling for SNRs. As a first step, he investigated the dynamical evolution of an ultrastripped supernova remnant (USSNR), which originated from a corecollapse SN explosion proposed to be a candidate formation site of a double neutron star binary. By accounting for the massloss history of the progenitor binary using a model developed by a previous study, he constructed the largescale structure of the CSM up to a radius ∼100 pc. Then, he simulated the explosion and subsequent evolution of a USSN surrounded by such a CSM environment. He found that the CSM encompasses a vast region characterized by a hot plasma with a temperature ∼10^8 K located around the termination shock of the wind from the progenitor binary (∼10 pc), and the USSNR blast wave is drastically weakened while penetrating through this hot plasma. Radio continuum emission from a young USSNR is sufficiently bright to be detectable if it inhabits our galaxy but faint compared to the observed Galactic SNRs. In this seminar, he talked about the background of the connection between the models for stellar evolution and SNRs, the details of his methods, and future prospects very well. Reported by Shigehiro Nagataki

20220704
セミナーレポートiTHEMS Biology Seminar by Dr. Margie Mayfield on June 30, 2022
Dr. Margie Mayfield (University of Melbourne) gave us a fantastic talk in the special biology seminar, held in a hybrid style at Okouchi Hall. She told us about comparative work on theoretical models and data in wild flowers. We really thank Margie on her great talk, especially despite her very tight schedule in Japan. Thank you Margie! I look forward to seeing you soon in person! Reported by Ryosuke Iritani

20220627
セミナーレポートiTHEMS Math Seminar by Dr. Shou Yoshikawa on June 10, 2022
On June 10, Shou Yoshikawa gave an introductory talk on his research field. He started his talk by explaining what is an algebraic geometry in mixed characteristic. He then explained some recent results on this subject. Reported by Keita Mikami

20220623
セミナーレポートQuantum Matter Seminar by Dr. Nobuyuki Okuma on June 21, 2022
Quantum Matter Study Group invited Prof. Nobuyuki Okuma to give an online seminar about nonHermitian topological phases. The seminar started with a succinct introduction to nonHermitian matrices. Different from Hermitian systems, the energy spectra now become complex numbers, the bra and ket states become inequivalent, and the Hamiltonians are not always diagonalizable, leading to the emergence of exceptional points. Taking the HatanoNelson model as an example, the speaker studied the 1D chain with the imaginary gauge transformation and showed that the spectra strongly depend on the boundary conditions (being periodic or open). Furthermore, distinct from end modes in Hermitian topological insulators, skin effect arises in nonHermitian systems, with skin modes accumulating in one end of the chain. He further showed that this skin effect also exhibits topological nature and can be generalized to either higherdimensional systems or to other nonHermitian systems with Z2 topological invariants. Reported by ChenHsuan Hsu (YITP) and ChingKai Chiu

20220621
セミナーレポートiTHEMS Biology Seminar by Dr. Mitsusuke Tarama on June 16, 2022
On June 16th, Dr. Tarama gave us an interesting talk about the physical modeling of selforganization in the chick embryo. He first introduced several beautiful patterns in biology such as stripes of pigment cells of Zebrafish. He then explained a recent observation of the dynamical meshwork structure of chick mesodermal cells, which is the direct motivation of his theoretical work. He showed how the intercellular interactions and shape deformation of cells can produce the dynamical meshwork structure, by physical modeling and application of the persistent homology as a useful tool. We are really grateful to Dr. Tarama for his comprehensive talk from both experimental and theoretical sides. Reported by Kyosuke Adachi

20220620
セミナーレポートMathPhys Seminar by Dr. Daisuke Yoshida on June 16, 2022
Dr. Daisuke Yoshida first motivated the expectation that the true quantum gravity, whatever its form turns out to be, should be free from singularities in the universe. The "singularity theorem" by Penrose states that a spacetime singularity arises under a set of certain assumptions. Flipping the argument around, if one admits that singularities are absent in our universe, at least one of the assumptions in the theorem needs to be abandoned. Dr. Yoshida discussed general properties that a nonsingular universe must satisfy in order to avoid the singularity theorem. In particular, he found and explained that the universe must be, in some sense, smaller than the corresponding closed de Sitter spacetime. His talk stimulated the audience, and they continued discussions for long after his seminar. Reported by Ryo Namba

20220609
セミナーレポートiTHEMS Biology Seminar by Dr. José Said GutiérrezOrtega on June 2, 2022
In this talk, I mentioned how both geographic isolation and natural selection may influence the way how species can be originated. I made emphasis in a general pattern that suggests that tropical species are more likely than highlatitude species to evolve while retaining the niche of their ancestors; a process called “niche conservatism”. To demonstrate this pattern, I showed the recent results of my own empirical research on the cycad genus Ceratozamia from Mexico: species at lower latitudes evolved niches less differentiated than expected from a Brownian Motion model (an evidence of niche conservatism), and highlatitude species evolved niches more differentiated than expected (an evidence of niche divergence). I hypothesize that both “niche conservatism” and “niche divergence” are not opposed processes as usually thought in ecology, but are part of a same general process. The implementation of models to predict how phylogenetic and ecological factors interplay in the formation of species along the latitudinal gradient may explain the pattern at the global level. The discussion on this topic allowed identifying that the latitudeassociated variation of biodiversity richness seems to be analogous to thermodynamic models: a higher energy availability in the tropics will make biological groups to evolve different ways (species) to exploit that energy. Reported by José Said GutiérrezOrtega

20220608
セミナーレポートDMWG Seminar by Dr. Shintaro Eijima on June 6, 2022
Dark matter (DM) is one important ingredient of our Universe of which existence indicates the theory beyond the Standard Model. It is not the unique motivation to extend the Standard Model describing the visible world. For example, we need to explain the origin of the tiny neutrino mass and the matterantimatter asymmetry. The introduction of sterile neutrinos could solve these problems simultaneously. Sterile neutrinos are new species of neutrinos which communicate with the Standard Model neutrino (active neutrinos) through mixing. Unfortunately, the possibility of explaining the whole of DM with the sterile neutrinos is already excluded from observations of Xray emission, neutrino beam experiments, and cosmological requirements. However, it is still a viable candidate when we consider the production mechanism carefully. Furthermore, some of such scenarios expect large lepton asymmetries resulting in the matterantimatter asymmetry. The sphaleron process takes an important role in such scenarios and it is related to the electroweak phase transition in the early Universe. The process of fixing the lepton asymmetry is interesting: sterile neutrinos first freezein, then freezeout, and decay. Quantitative prediction of such processes requires sophisticated calculations. Dr. Eijima has shown the latest results in this talk, with the comments that the bottleneck to proceed is the computational costs. The methodology is already welldeveloped. We will see indicative predictions in the near future! Neutrino physics will open new windows for our Universe! Reported by Nagisa Hiroshima

20220608
セミナーレポートABBLiTHEMS Joint Astro Seminar by Dr. Kanji Mori on June 3, 2022
Axionlike particles (ALPs) are a class of hypothetical bosons that feebly interact with ordinary matter. The hot plasma of stars and corecollapse supernovae is a possible laboratory to explore physics beyond the standard model, including ALPs. Once produced in a supernova, some of the ALPs can be absorbed by the supernova matter and affect energy transfer. The speaker recently consistently calculated the ALP emission in corecollapse supernovae and the backreaction on supernova dynamics. It is found that the stalled bounce shock can be revived if the coupling between ALPs and photons is as high as $g_{a\gamma}\sim 10^{9}$ GeV$^{1}$ and the ALP mass is 40400 MeV. Reported by Shigehiro Nagataki

20220530
セミナーレポートMathPhys Seminar by Dr. Toshifumi Noumi on May 19, 2022
Dr. Toshifumi Noumi (Kobe University) gave a pedagogical seminar on the socalled swampland program in particle physics. The program aims to clarify nontrivial consistency conditions on symmetries in quantum gravity that leave implications for particle physics and cosmology. Dr. Noumi started out with the basic philosophy of the study and expanded the details using the arguments of symmetries, blackholes, holography etc., keeping accessibility for broad audience. Reported by Ryo Namba

20220530
セミナーレポートiTHEMS Math Seminar by Dr. Yuto Moriwaki on May 23, 2022
On May 23, there was a math seminar by Yuto Moriwaki. He gave an introductory talk on the mathematical formulation of CFT. Reported by Keita Mikami

20220530
セミナーレポートiTHEMS Biology Seminar by Dr. Dan Warren on May 19, 2022
In the Biology Seminar on May 19th, 2022, we had the great opportunity to have Dr. Dan Warren (Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Japan) as an invited speaker. In his talk, Dr. Warren explained why the evaluation of species distribution models (SDMs) has become a useful method to understand and predict the geographic distribution of species. In particular, they provide vital information to take measurements in the conservation of biodiversity. To construct SDMs, researchers in this field have taken advantage of publicity available geographic and environmental big data. Usually, those kind of data were not produced with the intention to use it in ecology, but ecologists have developed many methods to use the big data to answer questions in ecology and evolutionary biology. However, despite that several of those methods have become standard in ecology, Dr. Warren warns us that all commonly used methods have serious biases, and such biases might be related to how much we unquestionably rely that big data. To explain his point, he showed the results of one paper that he and his colleagues recently published. In that paper, the authors used occurrence data of a fictional animal: the Pokémon Kangaskhan (name in English) or ガルーラ (in Japanese), and followed the usual methods to construct SDMs in order to predict the Pokémon distribution in the Australian territory. They found that the distribution of the fictional animal has strong biases, and that same patterns of biases are also present in many other reallife species. Dr. Warren concluded that there is a big open field to improve methods to construct SDMs. The incorporation of prior information in the construction of SDMs, and the application of Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to account for the uncertainty of results might be effective solutions to solve the problems that persist in this research field. Reported by José Said GutiérrezOrtega

20220530
セミナーレポートSeminar by Dr. Teppei Kitahara on May 20, 2022
Dr. Teppei Kitahara from Nagoya University gave a comprehensive review of anomalies from the Standard Model in particle physics. Continuous development of experiments in recent years has revealed a large number of experimental anomalies which the Standard Model cannot explain. It is statistically obvious that as the number of experiments increases, one encounters a new anomaly due to the statistical fluctuation. But interestingly, some of the anomalies have been crosschecked by different experiments. These would be hints for physics beyond the Standard model. In his seminar, he focused on the flavor anomalies (also known as lepton flavor universality violation), the muon g2 anomaly, and recently measured the W boson mass anomaly. He also discussed these implications for the new physics and introduced several of his works. Reported by Etsuko Itou

20220523
セミナーレポートABBLiTHEMS Joint Astro Seminar by Dr. Yannis Liodakis on May 20, 2022
The origin of highenergy neutrinos is fundamental to our understanding of the Universe. Apart from the technical challenges of operating detectors deep below ice, oceans, and lakes, the phenomenological challenges are even greater. The sources are unknown, unpredictable, and we lack clear signatures. Neutrino astronomy therefore represents the greatest challenge faced by the astronomy and physics communities thus far. The possible neutrino sources range from accretion disks and tidal disruption events, through relativistic jets to galaxy clusters with blazar TXS 0506+056 the most compelling association thus far. Since then, immense effort has been put into associating AGNjets with highenergy neutrinos, but to no avail. The speaker discussed his current efforts in understanding the multimessenger processes in the Universe, and once and for all proving or disproving if AGNjets are neutrino emitters. Reported by Shigehiro Nagataki

20220518
セミナーレポートiTHEMS Math Seminar by Dr. Taketo Sano on May 13, 2022
In May 13, there was a math seminar by Taketo Sano. He gave an introductory talk on category theory. Reported by Keita Mikami

20220430
セミナーレポートiTHEMS Biology Seminar by Mr. Daiki Kumakura on April 28, 2022
On April 28th, I talked about the Asgard archaea and the theory of intracellular symbiosis and discussed the mathematical modeling of the symbiosis hypothesis. First, I gave a brief of the classification of the organism as a fivekingdom system and threedomain system. Next, I talked about Asgard archaea, a group of archaea that has received much attention recently. Finally, I discussed the culture of Asgard archaea and the new theory of intracellular symbiosis that has developed as a result. In my presentation, I prepared the idea of mathematical modeling for the new theory. Audience members gave a variety of opinions on this model. In particular, I discussed points where the evolutionary model should be added, whether deterministic or stochastic dominance contributed, and why symbiosis was possible only in two specific species although a variety of symbiotic relationships were possible. I had a meaningful time exchanging opinions and having discussions with various researchers. Thank you so much. Reported by Daiki Kumakura

20220428
セミナーレポートiTHEMS Colloquium by Dr. HongYan Shih on April 22, 2022
On April 22 (Fri), we had the first iTHEMS colloquium of FY2022 by inviting HongYan Shih from Academia Sinica, Taiwan. After reviewing the turbulent phenomena in various area of science, she discussed how the turbulence occurs by increasing the flow velocity and how one can develop an effective theory to describe the critical region of laminarturbulent transition. Then she discussed a remarkable mathematical relation between the effective theory with the predatorprey dynamics in ecology and showed a characteristic super exponential scaling law. The topic was an ideal subject for the interdisciplinary talk, and there were many questions from the researchers with different scientific backgrounds.

20220428
セミナーレポートIntroduction to Topological Insulators by Dr. Tomoki Ozawa on April, 2022
In this lecture series, Professor Ozawa gave an introduction to topological insulators which are materials whose wavefunctions show nontrivial topological structures in momentum space. In the first two lectures, he introduced the socalled SuSchriefferHeeger model and the bulkedge correspondence which links edge states with winding number of certain operator in the Hamitonian. Such correspondence has its origin in mathematics called Toeplitz Index theorem which is a special case of AtiyahSinger index theorem. In the last two lectures, Chern insulators and quantum metrics are introduced. Eigenvectors of the Hamiltonian define a map from the momentum space (typically a torus) to a complex projective space. The pullback FubiniStudy metric (and standard Kahler form) defines the socalled quantum metric (and Berry curvature) on the momentum space. Using ChernWeil theory, Chern classes/characters are then defined. Chern classes which are originally notions from differential geometry/topology play an important role in topological insulators. A necessary and sufficient condition is also given when the above mentioned map is an immersion and realises momentum space as a Kahler submanifold of the projective space. Reported by Yalong Cao

20220425
セミナーレポートiTHEMS Math Seminar by Dr. Cédric Ho Thanh on April 22, 2022
On April 22, there was a math seminar by Dr. Cédric Ho Thanh. In the first half, he explained the recurrence theorems for the topological Markov chain. In the second half, he explained the sketch of the proof. Reported by Keita Mikami

20220425
セミナーレポートABBLiTHEMS Joint Astro Seminar by Dr. Masanori Iwamoto on April 22, 2022
Dr. Masahiro Iwamoto gave a presentation on his recent threedimensional (3D) particleincell (PIC) simulation of relativistic shocks and application of the results of the 3DPIC simulations to astrophysical phenomena. For example, the origin of fast radio bursts (FRBs; Lorimer et al. 2007) is one of the unsolved problems in astrophysics. Many observations of FRBs indicate that FRBs must be coherent emission in the sense that coherently moving electrons radiate electromagnetic waves. In relativistic shocks, it is well known that coherent electromagnetic waves are excited by synchrotron maser instability (SMI) in the shock transition (Hoshino & Arons 1991). The SMI is also known as the emission mechanism of coherent radio sources such as auroral kilometric radiation at Earth and Jovian decametric radiation. Recently, some models of fast radio burst based on the coherent emission from relativistic shock via the SMI have been proposed (e.g., Lyubarsky 2014; Beloborodov 2017; Plotnikov & Sironi 2019; Metzger et al. 2019) and the SMI in the context of relativistic shocks attracts more attention from astrophysics. In this seminar, by performing the world’s first 3DPIC simulation of relativistic shocks, he demonstrated that largeamplitude electromagnetic waves are indeed excited by the SMI even in 3D and that the wave amplitude is significantly amplified and comparable to that in pair plasmas due to a positive feedback process associated with ionelectron coupling. Based on the simulation results, he discussed the applicability of the SMI for FRBs. Reported by Shigehiro Nagataki

20220414
セミナーレポートiTHEMS Biology Seminar by Dr. Hiroshi Yokota on April 14, 2022
In iTHEMS biology seminar on April 14th, I introductory talked about the coarsegrained molecular dynamics simulation by using Langevin equation which is the equation of motion including the interaction, the friction and the random force. First, I mentioned the chromosome formation dynamics as an example of the application range of the simulation. Next, I explained the Langevin equation and its intuitive picture. Then, I showed the discretized Langevin equation which keeps the stochastic properties of the random force term. Finally, I showed some examples of Langevin simulation. Many questions and discussions arose from the audience. Thank you very much!

20220401
セミナーレポートiTHEMS Biology Seminar by Dr. Euki Yazaki on March 17, 2022
At the March 17th seminar , I presented my research. It was mainly an analysis of the phylogenetic position of orphan organisms (organisms whose phylogenetic position is unknown) based on largescale sequence data, and in addition, I showed that huge lineages (Archaeplastida), including plants, are monophyletic. Although monophyly of Archaeplastida has been debated for many years, this study clarified that they are monophyletic and why they were not monophyletic in previous research. The seminar was very active, with many questions about the methods of phylogenetic analysis and biological questions.

20220330
セミナーレポートQuantum Matter Seminar by Dr. Tiantian Zhang on March 24, 2022
The Quantum Matter Study Group invited Dr. Tiantian Zhang from Tokyo Institute of Technology to talk about the local and global topology for Tgprotected Z_{2} Dirac points. In the beginning, by introducing the topological phase in the gapped and gapless systems, she discussed the conventional and Z_{2} Dirac points. Surprisingly, she established gaugeinvariant charge formula and bulksurface correspondence for Z_{2} Dirac points, which can give a full understanding about the topology of Tgprotected Z_{2} Dirac points. Then, she proposed the first Z_{2} Dirac material candidate Li2B4O7 for further exploration. Reported by Congcong Le
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