August 1 (Tue) at 13:30 - 15:00, 2023 (JST)
  • Len Brandes (Ph.D. Student, Technical University of Munich, Germany)
Tetsuo Hatsuda

Information on the phase structure of strongly interacting matter at high baryon densities can be gained from observations of neutron stars and their detailed analysis. Bayesian inference methods are used to set constraints on the speed of sound in the interior of neutron stars, based on recent multimessenger data in combination with low-density constraints based on chiral effective field theory and perturbative QCD constraints at asymptotically high densities.
A detailed re-analysis is performed in order to clarify the influence of the latter constraints on the inference procedure. The impact of the recent new heavy (2.35 M_sol) black widow pulsar PSR J0952-0607 and of the unusually light supernova remnant HESS J1731-347 is inspected. One of the consequences of including PSR J0952-0607 in the database is a further stiffening of the equation-of-state, resulting in a 2.1 solar-mass neutron star in a reduced central density of less than five times the equilibrium density of normal nuclear matter.
A systematic Bayes factor assessment quantifies the evidence (or non-evidence) for small sound speeds, necessary for a strong first-order phase transition, within the range of densities realized in the core of neutron stars. Given the presently existing database, it can be concluded that the occurrence of a strong first-order phase transition in the core of even a 2.1 solar-mass neutron star is unlikely, while a continuous crossover cannot be ruled out.


  1. Len Brandes, Wolfram Weise, Norbert Kaiser, Evidence against a first-order phase transition in neutron star cores: impact of new data, (2023), arXiv: 2306.06218

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