ABBL/iTHEMS Astro Seminar

Seminar

ABBL/iTHEMS Astro Seminar

Magnetic field dependence of neutrino-driven core-collapse supernova models

December 10 at 14:00 - 15:00, 2021

Prof. Jin Matsumoto (Assistant Professor, Keio Institute of Pure and Applied Sciences (KiPAS), Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University)

Massive stars can explode and release huge energy (typically 10^51 erg) at the end of their life. It is one of the most energetic explosions in the Universe and is called a core-collapse supernova. The impact of the magnetic field on the explosion mechanisms of the core-collapse supernova is a long-standing mystery. Recently, we have updated our neutrino-radiation-hydrodynamics supernova code (3DnSNe, Takiwaki et al. 2016) to include magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Using this code, we have performed three-dimensional MHD simulations for the evolution of non-rotating stellar cores focusing on the difference in the magnetic field of the progenitors. Initially, 20 and 27 solar mass pre-supernova progenitors are threaded by only the poloidal component of the magnetic field, which strength is 10^10 (weak) or 10^12 (strong) G. We find that the neutrino-driven explosion occurs in both the weak and strong magnetic field models. The neutrino heating is the main driver for the explosion in our models, whereas the strong magnetic field slightly supports the explosion. In my talk, I will introduce the details of this mechanism.

Venue: via Zoom

Event Official Language: English

Seminar

ABBL/iTHEMS Astro Seminar

Axions around rotating black holes

November 12 at 14:00 - 16:00, 2021

Dr. Hirotaka Yoshino (Institute of Cosmophysics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kobe University)

String theories indicate the existence of many axionlike scalar fields with light masses in addition to the QCD axion. If this is the case, an axion field around a rotating black hole extracts the energy of the black hole by the mechanism called the “superradiant instability”. Then, every astrophysical black hole is expected to wear a cloud of the axion. In this talk, I would like to give an overview on this topic, and introduce our numerical studies on the phenomena caused by the axion cloud at the last stage of the superradiant instability where the self-interaction of axions becomes important.

Venue: via Zoom

Event Official Language: English

Seminar

ABBL/iTHEMS Astro Seminar

Recent progress on the r-process in the era of gravitational-wave astronomy

October 15 at 16:00 - 18:00, 2021

Dr. Nobuya Nishimura (Astrophysical Big Bang Laboratory, RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research (CPR))

The r-process, the rapid neutron-capture process, is a major origin of heavy nuclei beyond iron in the universe, occurring in explosive astrophysical phenomena with very neutron-rich environments. In the studies of r-process nucleosynthesis, there are several unsolved problems in nuclear physics and astrophysics. In this talk, I will briefly summarize recent progress on the studies of the r-process, mainly focusing on neutron star mergers. We will see that the scenario of neutron star mergers is consistent with several observations, e.g., GW170817 with a kilonova, chemical evolution of r-process elements. In addition, nevertheless, there are several remaining (or newly realized) problems on the origin of r-process elements in the universe. Focusing on our own research, I will introduce attempts to address these issues.

Venue: via Zoom

Event Official Language: English

Seminar

ABBL/iTHEMS Astro Seminar

Fallback Accretion in Binary Neutron Star Mergers

July 9 at 16:00 - 17:30, 2021

Dr. Wataru Ishizaki (Postdoctoral Fellows, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University)

The gravitational wave event GW170817 with a kilonova shows that a merger of two neutron stars ejects matter with radioactivity including r-process nucleosynthesis. A part of the ejecta inevitably falls back to the central object, possibly powering long-lasting activities of a short gamma-ray burst (sGRB), such as extended and plateau emissions. We investigate the fallback accretion with the r-process heating by performing one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations and developing a semi-analytical model. We show that the usual fallback rate dM/dt \propto t^{-5/3} is halted by the heating. The characteristic halting timescale is $\sim 10^4$--$10^8$ sec for the GW170817-like r-process heating, which is long enough to continue the long-lasting emission of sGRBs. Furthermore, we propose a new interpretation of the recently reported re-brightening in the annual-scale X-ray light curve of GW170817. We model the fallback of the merger ejecta and construct a simple light curve model from the accreting ejecta. We find that the X-ray flux excess can be well explained by the fallback of the post-merger ejecta such as the disk wind from the accretion disk of the merger remnant rather than by the fallback of the dynamical ejecta. The duration of the constant luminosity phase conveys the initial fallback timescale t_0 in the past. Future observations in the next decades will probe the timescale of t_0 \sim 10--10^4 sec, around the time of extended emission in short gamma-ray bursts.

Venue: via Zoom

Event Official Language: English

Seminar

ABBL/iTHEMS Astro Seminar

Theory of Core-Collapse Supernovae

June 25 at 16:00 - 17:00, 2021

Dr. Akira Harada (Special Postdoctoral Researcher, iTHEMS)

Venue: via Zoom

Event Official Language: English

Seminar

ABBL/iTHEMS Astro Seminar

Magnetorotational Instability: Current Understanding and Perspective

May 28 at 16:00 - 17:00, 2021

Dr. Takashi Minoshima (Researcher, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC))

The differentially rotating flow can be destabilized in the presence of a weak magnetic field through the magnetorotational instability (MRI). The MRI is considered as a possible mechanism for outward angular momentum transport and subsequent mass accretion in accretion disks. Numerous studies have been devoted to understand its nature and judge whether it can supply the power sufficient for observed transport efficiency. For example, the MHD simulation studies have attempted to reveal the scaling of the MRI on numerical (e.g., resolution and domain size) as well as physical parameters (e.g., magnetic field intensity and configuration). In this talk, I would like to discuss current understanding and perspective of the MRI through theoretical and numerical studies. I will especially focus on the impact of transport coefficients (viscosity, resistivity, and their ratio) on the evolution of the MRI and disk.

Venue: via Zoom

Event Official Language: English